The Initiation Of The First Nuclear War: Revelation 8

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The Initiation Of Nuclearization In South Asia – OpEd

May 22, 2022

South  Asia is most important region of the world  in terms of geography, demography and strategic importance. The region is gathered in round mass of states like Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka, The one fifth population of the world is living in South Asia. In the region India and Pakistan are important states of the sub-Continent and has great hostility over the unresolved and disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The security of the region is depends upon the relations between India and Pakistan. The hostile relation between the two countries affected not only the progress and prosperity of the two nations but also affected the quality of life of people of both sides.

India wants to become a dominant power in the region on the basis of its military and economic strength. While Pakistan do not want to live under the threat of its neighbor. After the Sino-India war in 1962, India started to modernize its armed force and this Indian step compelled Pakistan to do same  because India wanted to alter the strategic balance in the region.

The initiation of nuclearization in South Asia was started by India. “HOMI BHABA” launched India’s nuclear program. India’s first Prime Minister Nehru, called the bomb a “symbol of evil,” but he was adamant that India’s nuclear program pursue only peaceful applications. India thought to acquire its nuclear weapon after China’s nuclear test in 1964. After India’s attention Pakistan also focused to get nuclear weapon. As a bigger economy and technological growth India desired to make nuclear weapon and this thing provoke Pakistan to do same.

  In 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test in Rajasthan. US said India make big mistake and called India, “number one hegemonic power” in the region. But no serious action was taken to stop India from acquiring further nuclear technology. Instead, major powers think to restrain Pakistan from getting nuclear capability, when its peaceful nuclear program was in process.  Pakistan’s serious efforts for nuclear development started after the Indian military intervention in East Pakistan in 1971. Although Pakistan was forced to leave its nuclear program and threatened that sanctions would be imposed on Pakistan by US. But US did not threaten India who had already tests its nuclear. 

India wants to create nuclear deterrence in the region especially over Pakistan. On 11, May 1998, India had conducted its five nuclear tests which were unannounced. In response to Indian nuclear tests, Pakistan also conducted its five nuclear tests on 28, May 1998 and additional tests in 30, May. Although the economic and military sanction were imposed on both India and Pakistan by US, but EU considered that the Indian nuclear test is threat to international peace and also describes that Pakistan’s security concerns are understandable.

After the incident of 9/11, US has changed its policy towards South Asia to achieve its goal by reshaping its political, economic, military and strategic partnership with India. In 2001 US president Bush changed its policy toward China and declared China a “strategic competitor rather than a partner”.  US decided to make India a major power in the 21st century to counter  China. US considered that India is the only country which can help US to counter China. 

In 2005, Indian PM Man Mohan Singh visited Washington, US offered full support of civil nuclear energy, by giving India a status as a member state of nuclear nonproliferation without signing agreement, means recognize India as a nuclear weapon state. Finally India-US civil nuclear deal agreement was signed in July, 18, 2005. This was US changing behavior towards Pakistan and its implication for Pakistan can be judge clearly because India can create strong threat to Pakistan’s security by using this civil nuclear technology to its military purposes. In 2009 India allows US companies to build nuclear reactor in India.

The security situation of South Asia is always characterized by the rivalry between India and Pakistan. The rise of one state of India, means  the fall of other states. India is increasing its defense capabilities to become dominant power in the region, which is also  cause of concerns of Pakistan. Pakistan is already alert about the Indian dominance and its increasing conventional and non-conventional warfare ability. India has the ambitious to dominate the South Asian region and wants to create its hegemonic design in the region, which will put negative impact on Pakistan. Pakistan do not want to create it hegemony in the region, but Pakistan’s concerns regarding its security has increased after Indian hostile, aggressive and provocative behavior towards Pakistan. 

India is spending billions of dollars in the procurement of arms from Russia, US, France and Israel and become a  largest arms importer in the world. In order to  maintain balance of power in the region  Pakistan is also spending large amount of its budget for its security needs. This Indian extra ordinary spending on purchasing arms has created a threat full environment in the region and created insecurity among the regional countries especially for Pakistan.

 In 2016, at BRICS summit, India finalized agreement with Russia for the purchase of five S-400 missile systems. Initially, Indian government  has paid 800 million dollar to Russia, as an advance payment and it was expected that India will receive the first batch  of S-400 Russian, missile system in late 2021 but it did not received yet. 

Acquiring of Russian S-400 defense system signals that India is fully determined to create its hegemony in the region especially over Pakistan. This Indian hegemonic designs is not only cause of concern for countries, but will alter the strategic environment of South Asia, which is already under the shadow of India’s aggressive and warmongering attitude. It will create sense of insecurity among other south Asian states.

India always try to create Imbalance in the region, while Pakistan always took countermeasures to maintain power asymmetry  in the region. Now India is advancing itself form middle rang to log rang missile and from ballistic missile to hypersonic technology and has left no option for Pakistan except to do same.  Many time Pakistan has proposed South Asia free of nuclear weapons but it was rejected by India. If India gets ready to give up its nuclear weapon then Pakistan will do the same but India is not willing to do so because India is adamant on its policy of non acceptance.

The writer is Islamabad based Researcher and Freelancer

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