Two Centuries Before The Sixth Seal (Revelation 6:12)

The worst earthquake in Massachusetts history 260 years ago
It happened before, and it could happen again.
By Hilary Sargent @lilsarg
Boston.com Staff | 11.19.15 | 5:53 AM
On November 18, 1755, Massachusetts experienced its largest recorded earthquake.
The earthquake occurred in the waters off Cape Ann, and was felt within seconds in Boston, and as far away as Nova Scotia, the Chesapeake Bay, and upstate New York, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
Seismologists have since estimated the quake to have been between 6.0 and 6.3 on the Richter scale, according to the Massachusetts Historical Society.
While there were no fatalities, the damage was extensive.
According to the USGS, approximately 100 chimneys and roofs collapsed, and over a thousand were damaged.
The worst damage occurred north of Boston, but the city was not unscathed.
A 1755 report in The Philadelphia Gazette described the quake’s impact on Boston:
“There was at first a rumbling noise like low thunder, which was immediately followed with such a violent shaking of the earth and buildings, as threw every into the greatest amazement, expecting every moment to be buried in the ruins of their houses. In a word, the instances of damage done to our houses and chimnies are so many, that it would be endless to recount them.”
The quake sent the grasshopper weathervane atop Faneuil Hall tumbling to the ground, according to the Massachusetts Historical Society.
An account of the earthquake, published in The Pennsylvania Gazette on December 4, 1755.
The earthquake struck at 4:30 in the morning, and the shaking lasted “near four minutes,” according to an entry John Adams, then 20, wrote in his diary that day.
The brief diary entry described the damage he witnessed.
“I was then at my Fathers in Braintree, and awoke out of my sleep in the midst of it,” he wrote. “The house seemed to rock and reel and crack as if it would fall in ruins about us. 7 Chimnies were shatter’d by it within one mile of my Fathers house.”
The shaking was so intense that the crew of one ship off the Boston coast became convinced the vessel had run aground, and did not learn about the earthquake until they reached land, according to the Massachusetts Historical Society.
In 1832, a writer for the Hampshire (Northampton) Gazette wrote about one woman’s memories from the quake upon her death.
“It was between 4 and 5 in the morning, and the moon shone brightly. She and the rest of the family were suddenly awaked from sleep by a noise like that of the trampling of many horses; the house trembled and the pewter rattled on the shelves. They all sprang out of bed, and the affrightted children clung to their parents. “I cannot help you dear children,” said the good mother, “we must look to God for help.”
The Cape Ann earthquake came just 17 days after an earthquake estimated to have been 8.5-9.0 on the Richter scale struck in Lisbon, Portugal, killing at least 60,000 and causing untold damage.
There was no shortage of people sure they knew the impretus for the Cape Ann earthquake.
According to many ministers in and around Boston, “God’s wrath had brought this earthquake upon Boston,” according to the Massachusetts Historical Society.
In “Verses Occasioned by the Earthquakes in the Month of November, 1755,” Jeremiah Newland, a Taunton resident who was active in religious activities in the Colony, wrote that the earthquake was a reminder of the importance of obedience to God.
“It is becaufe we broke thy Laws,
that thou didst shake the Earth.

O what a Day the Scriptures say,
the EARTHQUAKE doth foretell;
O turn to God; lest by his Rod,
he cast thee down to Hell.”
Boston Pastor Jonathan Mayhew warned in a sermon that the 1755 earthquakes in Massachusetts and Portugal were “judgments of heaven, at least as intimations of God’s righteous displeasure, and warnings from him.”
There were some, though, who attempted to put forth a scientific explanation for the earthquake.
Well, sort of.
In a lecture delivered just a week after the earthquake, Harvard mathematics professor John Winthrop said the quake was the result of a reaction between “vapors” and “the heat within the bowels of the earth.” But even Winthrop made sure to state that his scientific theory “does not in the least detract from the majesty … of God.”
It has been 260 years since the Cape Ann earthquake. Some experts, including Boston College seismologist John Ebel, think New England could be due for another significant quake.
In a recent Boston Globe report, Ebel said the New England region “can expect a 4 to 5 magnitude quake every decade, a 5 to 6 every century, and a magnitude 6 or above every thousand years.”
If the Cape Ann earthquake occurred today, “the City of Boston could sustain billions of dollars of earthquake damage, with many thousands injured or killed,” according to a 1997 study by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

Sharif and the Pakistani Nuclear Horn: Revelation 16

Nawaz Sharif to remain alive in history of Pakistan for conducting nuclear tests: Irfan Siddiqui

Nawaz Sharif To Remain Alive In History Of Pakistan For Conducting Nuclear Tests: Irfan Siddiqui

Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML-N), Senator Irfan Siddiqui Friday said the former Prime Minister, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif would remain alive in the history of Pakistan for his achievement of conducting nuclear tests on May 28, 1998 to safeguard the interest of the country and strengthen its defence

ISLAMABAD, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News – 27th May, 2022 ) :Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML-N), Senator Irfan Siddiqui Friday said the former Prime Minister, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif would remain alive in the history of Pakistan for his achievement of conducting nuclear tests on May 28, 1998 to safeguard the interest of the country and strengthen its defence. 

In an interview with APP in connection with the Youm-i-Takbir falling on May 28, Irfan Siddiquisaid “Youm-e-Takbir is our identity and a great day when we nurtured our self respect, recognized our status and rejected the pressure of the world“. 

Irfan Siddiqui said “The then Prime Minister, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif only safeguarded the interest of Pakistan and kept defence of the country at supreme while taking such a step which was in benefit of 22 millionpopulation”. 

Nawaz Sharif conducted historic nucleartests on that day what was essential for the respect, integrity and sovereignty of the country and independent identity of its people”, he said. 

“Today those raising the slogans of American conspiracy could not imagine what kind of pressure the then Prime Minister sustained in the year 1998 when the nuclear tests were conducted but he (Nawaz Sharif) neither waved any letter nor he talked about any conspiracy, oppression and pressure but went straight to Chaghi mountains and conducted six nuclear blasts in response to the five tests by India, giving a befitting response in front of the world“.

He said, “We are thankful to all those people, engineers, politicians and those leading armed forces who contributed in execution of this program at that time.” “The real achievement was of the masses who have given their sweat and blood that today we are able to talk about the defense of the homeland while raising our heads with pride and looking into the eyes of enemy”, Irfan Siddiqui said. 

It is pertinent to mention here that Youm-i-Takbir is celebrated on May 28, annually to commemorate the historic event of conducting nuclear tests in 1998. This day not only made Pakistan seventh nuclear state of the world but also the very first Islamic state equipping nuclear arsenal

The operation was conducted in Rasko hills of Chaghi district Balochistan. The reason of conducting the operation was to give a response to a total of five nuclear explosions by India.

Israel attacks the Iranian horn again

Mysterious “accident” at Iran weapons facility with suspected links to nuclear program kills engineer

May 26, 2022 / 5:32 AM

Tehran, Iran — An unexplained incident struck a major Iranian military and weapons development base east of Tehran, the country’s state TV reported on Thursday, killing an engineer and injuring another employee. Iran‘s Defense Ministry said the “accident” occurred on Wednesday afternoon at a research center at the Parchin military complex. 

The ministry did not elaborate on the cause of the accident or provide any further details, but said an investigation was underway. It identified the engineer who died as Ehsun Ghadbeigi.

Parchin is home to a military base where the International Atomic Energy Agency previously said it suspected Iran conducted tests of explosive triggers that could be used in nuclear weapons. Iran long has denied seeking nuclear weapons, though the IAEA previously said Iran had done work in “support of a possible military dimension to its nuclear program” that largely halted in late 2003.

The military complex at Parchin, Iran, about 19 miles southeast of Tehran, is seen in this Aug. 13, 2004, satellite image provided by DigitalGlobe and the Institute for Science and International Security.
The military complex at Parchin, Iran, about 19 miles southeast of Tehran, is seen in this Aug. 13, 2004, satellite image provided by DigitalGlobe and the Institute for Science and International Security. AP Photo/DigitalGlobe – Institute for Science and International Security

Western concerns over the Iranian atomic program led to sanctions and eventually to Tehran’s 2015 nuclear deal with world powers. The U.S. under President Donald Trump unilaterally withdrew from the accord in May 2018, leading to a series of escalating attacks between Iran and the U.S. and Tehran abandoning the deal’s production limits.

Ongoing negotiations led to hopes in March that a roadmap could be agreed that would see the United States rejoin the accord that Trump pulled the country out of in 2018, and for Iran to again limit its rapidly advancing nuclear program. But that month, the European Union’s foreign policy chief said “a pause” was needed in the talks, blaming “external factors” for the delay.

While the EU’s top diplomat didn’t elaborate, his remark came soon after Russia — another party to the nuclear talks with Iran — tied the ongoing negotiations to sanctions that Moscow has been hit with over its war on Ukraine. Regardless of the cause, the talks have remained stalled since March.

Since the U.S. withdrawal from the nuclear pact in 2018, Tehran has steadily ratcheted up its nuclear development. The country insists it is only for civilian purposes, but Iran now enriches uranium up to 60% purity — its highest level ever and a short technical step from weapons-grade levels of 90%.

In 2015, the IAEA’s then-director-general visited one suspected weapons-program site at Parchin and inspectors took samples there for analysis.

Iran’s missile and space programs have suffered a series of mysterious explosions in recent years. A giant unexplained blast struck in the area of Parchin in the summer of 2020, rattling the capital and sending a massive fireball into the sky near Tehran.

Antichrist pushes anti-normalisation bill through parliament to reassure Iran, claim ‘victory’ at home

Sadr pushes anti-normalisation bill through parliament to reassure Iran, claim ‘victory’ at home | | AW

BAGHDAD, Iraq-

Iraq’s parliament approved a law on Thursday that will ban normalising relations with Israel, in a move intended by populist leader Moqtada al-Sadr as a political message to his home constituencies and to Iran.

The law was approved with 275 lawmakers in the 329-seat assembly. A parliament statement said the legislation is “a true reflection of the will of the people.”

The legislation says that violation of the law is punishable with a death sentence or life imprisonment

Analysts said the anti-normalisation move was an attempt by Sadr to claim a populist victory after having failed to make any progress in resolving the country’s political impasse, nearly eight months after the legislative ballot. Rival blocks have yet to agree on a nominee for president and prime minister. Parliament could not even pass an emergency food security bill.

The fiery Shia cleric, whose party won the largest number of seats in Iraq’s parliamentary elections last year, called for Iraqis to take to the streets to celebrate this “great achievement.”

The first deputy-speaker of parliament, Hakim al-Zamili, who belongs to the Sadrist Current, put out a statement saying the legislation “truly reflects the will of the people, a brave national decision and a position that is the first of its kind in the world in terms of criminalising the relationship with the Zionist entity.” He called on Arab and Islamic parliaments to adopt similar legislations to meet “the aspirations of their peoples”.

But the issue of normalisation with Israel has hardly been a priority demand for Iraqis, who are more focused on their deteriorating living conditions and the growing food crisis.

Sadr’s move is connected to tensions between Tehran and Iraqi Kurdistan and is intended to reassure the Iranian regime and its proxies in Iraq of the maverick leader’s goodwill, analysts point out.

Lawmakers from Sadr’s party said they proposed the law to curb any claims by Iranian-backed rival parties that Sadr is making coalitions with Sunni and Kurds who may have secret ties with Israel.

Pro-Iranian militias were clearly pleased. “Approving the law is not only a victory for the Iraqi people but to the heroes in Palestine and Hezbollah in Lebanon,” said Iraqi Shia lawmaker Hassan Salim who represents Iranian-backed militia Asaib Ahl al-Haq.

Despite his claims of independence from Tehran, through the bill Sadr is sending a message of support and loyalty to Iran at a time of mounting tensions between the Tehran regime and Israel.

The Sadrist movement introduced the bill after accusations of connections to Israel were levelled at his political allies within the Alliance to Save the Homeland, which includes the Sadrist bloc, the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Sovereignty Coalition

Iran has repeatedly accused Iraqi Kurdistan leaders of ties to Israel. Earlier this year, its Revolutionary Guards fired a dozen ballistic missiles towards the northern city of Erbil in the Kurdish-run north, saying it was targeting an Israeli intelligence base.

The home of Baz Karim, the CEO of the oil company KAR GROUP, was heavily damaged in the attack. KAR has been accused in the past of quietly selling oil to Israel.

A report by the Iraqi parliament’s fact-finding committee said it found no evidence to support Iranian accusations of an Israeli spy base in Erbil.

Some tribal leaders have also accused the Sovereignty Coalition, especially its leader Muhammad al-Halbousi, of carrying out an “Israeli agenda” in Iraq’s Sunni heartlands.

It is unclear how the law will be implemented as Iraq has not recognised Israel since the country’s formation in 1948; the two nations have no diplomatic relations. But the legislation also entails risks for companies working in Iraq and found to be in violation of the bill.

The United States said it was deeply disturbed by the Iraqi legislation. “In addition to jeopardising freedom of expression and promoting an environment of antisemitism, this legislation stands in stark contrast to progress Iraq’s neighbours have made by building bridges and normalising relations with Israel, creating new opportunities for people throughout the region,” State Department spokesman Ned Price said in a statement.

Nuclear Weapons Map: Daniel

Nuclear weapons map: Vladimir Putin

Nuclear weapons map: Which country has the most nuclear weapons? Warheads compared

NUCLEAR weapon usage over the war in Ukraine has become a grave concern for European and American officials, with Vladimir Putin nearing a key victory. Which country has the most nuclear weapons?

By LIAM DOYLE

https://imasdk.googleapis.com/js/core/bridge3.517.2_en.html#goog_816554229

Nuclear missiles have unfortunately re-entered discussions around the war in Ukraine since February, as Russia becomes increasingly desperate. The country is nearing a tactical victory in Kherson, having surrounded Ukrainian forces in the area. Officials fear success will embolden Putin, but others have said the Russian premier is more likely to react with his nuclear deterrent if he feels he is losing the war.

The first nuclear weapon was developed in the US on July 16, 1945, and used alongside another to end World War Two by bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.

For decades following, the US and Russia competed to build the world’s largest arsenal and proliferated significantly during the Cold War.

Since then, Russia has come out on top and, despite negotiations, currently possesses the most nuclear warheads.

Nuclear weapons map: Which country has the most nuclear weapons? Warhead stockpiles compared (Image: GETTY)

Nuclear weapons map: Nuclear warhead

Nuclear weapons map: Russia has 4,487 missiles assigned to military vehicles (Image: GETTY)

The country divides its stockpile between retired, military-strategic, and strategic deployed warheads.

Russia has retired 1,760 and assigned the bulk – 4,487 – to military-strategic purposes, where both active and inactive warheads await use on military delivery vehicles.

Officials have mounted the remaining 1,458 on ballistic missiles ready for deployment.

Nuclear weapons map: Nuclear weapons map

Nuclear weapons map: Nuclear weapon stockpiles around the world compared (Image: EXPRESS)

The US is the only country that comes close to Russia, with 1,800 retired warheads, 3,750 military strategic and 1,389 deployed.

Another six countries have three-figure warhead supplies, each used for military-strategic purposes.

China, France and the UK have the third, fourth and fifth most, with 350, 290 and 275 each.

Pakistan, India and Israel have approximately 165, 156 and 90 each.

Nuclear weapons map: North Korea

Nuclear weapons map: North Korea launched three new missiles today (Image: GETTY)

The global outlier is North Korea, as it has never publicly declared how large its nuclear stockpile is.

The ACA estimates the country has between 40 and 50 weapons and enough fissile material to build more.

Kim Jong Un’s administration could develop six to seven weapons a year, the ACA added.

And the country recently tested new ballistic missiles, launching three from Susan, Pyongyang’s international airport, the South Korean Joint Chiefs of Staff said.

Israel Acknowledges Responsibility for Iranian Officer’s Assassination

The Israeli officials acknowledged that two Israeli agents had carried out the attack, although they did not comment on whether those agents were Israelis or Iranians opposed to the government of Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei.

by Trevor Filseth L

Israeli officials informed their American counterparts on Wednesday that Israel was responsible for the assassination of Col. Hassan Sayad Khodayari, an officer in Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) who was shot to death in Tehran on Sunday, according to the New York Times.

The Israeli officials acknowledged that two Israeli agents had carried out the attack, although they did not comment on whether those agents were Israelis or Iranians opposed to the government of Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. Khodayari’s two assailants escaped from the scene on a motorcycle, and Iranian authorities indicated later in the week that Tehran’s police were conducting a city-wide manhunt.

In justifying the assassination, Israeli officials claimed that Khodayari had served as deputy commander of Unit 840 of the IRGC’s Quds Force, responsible for the Islamic Republic’s external operations. Unit 840 is reportedly involved in foreign terrorist attacks, and the officials implicated Khodayari in a number of plots against Israeli diplomats abroad, including an unsuccessful 2012 attempt to kill Israelis in Bangkok that led to the deaths of five bystanders. Khodayari was also accused of masterminding separate bombing incidents in New Delhi, where an explosion injured an Israeli diplomat’s wife, and Tbilisi, where a bomb on an Israeli consular vehicle was defused before it could explode. Unit 840 has also reportedly been involved in assassination attempts against Israeli and Western officials in Europe, South America, and the Middle East.

Iran has denied the existence of Unit 840, and the IRGC described Khodayari’s assassination as a “criminal terrorist act.”

After the news broke of Israel’s admission of involvement, Israeli officials reportedly expressed anger that their comments to American officials had been leaked to the press. Tel Aviv has reportedly requested an explanation from the U.S. government of how the information was made public, as the leaker is presumed to be an American. The Jerusalem Post warned that Israelis abroad could face additional hostility after Tel Aviv’s involvement in the bombings became known

Israel is known to conduct assassinations against perceived threats to its security as part of its foreign policy. Israeli operatives are thought to have killed five Iranian nuclear scientists between 2010 and 2012. In November 2020, Israeli agents assassinated Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, an eminent Iranian atomic scientist widely described as the head of Iran’s nuclear program. Iran condemned Fakhrizadeh’s killing as an act of “state terror,” and many Western officials, including former CIA Director John Brennan, characterized it as a violation of international law.

Trevor Filseth is a current and foreign affairs writer for the National Interest.

How Is Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine Likely to Alter the Nuclear Horns: Daniel 7

How Is Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine Likely to Alter the Post-World War II International Order?

The dramatic global events unleashed by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and other fast moving global trends require deep expertise to be understood and explained. A group of experts offer their perspectives on some critical global challenges

By Carnegie Corporation of New York May 25, 2022

EMERGING GLOBAL ORDER

Pro-Ukraine demonstrators in front of the Russian embassy in Berlin on February 22, 2022, two days before President Vladimir Putin ordered his forces to invade Ukraine. (Credit: John MacDougall/AFP via Getty Images)


As a foundation with a historical commitment to improving the ability of the United States to understand international issues and foreign countries, Carnegie Corporation of New York has solicited expert views on three critical questions provoked by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022: How is Russia’s invasion of Ukraine likely to alter the post-World War II international order? How can we avoid further escalation of the international conflict? And what knowledge is needed for the U.S. to navigate evolving foreign policy challenges?

Experts on Russia, nuclear security, and international affairs more broadly, offer their views on each of these questions in a series of three articles. This article addresses the first question through brief perspectives, with each answer limited to 100 words or less.

In the spirit of the Corporation’s mission to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding, the responses shed light on developments that will impact national policies and international relations for the foreseeable future. – Deana Arsenian, Vice President, International Program, and Program Director, Russia and Eurasia, Carnegie Corporation of New York

How is Russia’s invasion of Ukraine likely to alter the post-World War II international order?

Toby Dalton

Senior Fellow and Co-Director, Nuclear Policy Program, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace | @toby_dalton

Russia’s repeated aggression against Ukraine is increasing demand for U.S. “nuclear umbrellas” in Asia and Europe. South Korea and Japan are debating redeployment of U.S. nuclear weapons; Finland and Sweden have applied to join NATO. Pressures to expand the U.S. nuclear arsenal are growing, potentially reversing a three-decades-long trend of arms reductions and creating new dangers of nuclear use. With concerns about U.S. commitments to its alliances at an all-time high owing to the Trump administration’s threats to withdraw, some U.S. allies may choose to develop their own nuclear weapons, with untold consequences for the international order.


Nancy Gallagher

Research Professor; Director, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland, University of Maryland

President Biden vowed that “in the contest between democracy and autocracy, between sovereignty and subjugation … freedom will prevail.” Yet, governments representing half of humanity remain on the sidelines. Many are authoritarians who share Russian concerns that the West increases its security and advances its values at others’ expense. For a unified international response, Biden should acknowledge these concerns and repudiate aggression as an acceptable response. He should explain how unified action against aggression by a coalition of countries with different forms of government will lead to a more inclusive and equitable rules-based international order.

With concerns about U.S. commitments to its alliances at an all-time high owing to the Trump administration’s threats to withdraw, some U.S. allies may choose to develop their own nuclear weapons, with untold consequences for the international order.

Toby Dalton

Henry Hale

Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University; Co-director of the Program on New Approaches to Research and Security in Eurasia (PONARS Eurasia)

It depends greatly on how the war ends. If Russia winds up with recognized territorial gains (de facto or de jure), a new “nuclear impunity” precedent will have been set that will incentivize a) more states to become nuclear and b) authoritarian nuclear states to use conventional force to settle their territorial disputes at the expense of states not covered by a nuclear umbrella. Among other things, this will harden a divide between NATO and non-NATO in Europe and likely lead to an expansion of Chinese influence in Asia. To the extent Russia fails, the opposite signal will be sent.

Also in This Series

Explore more questions on the Russian invasion of Ukraine, as answered by experts and our grantees


Siegfried S. Hecker

Senior Fellow Emeritus, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University; Director Emeritus, Los Alamos National Laboratory

It has dramatically undermined the global nuclear order that has evolved since World War II. That order has been responsible for preventing the use of nuclear weapons, limiting the number of countries with nuclear weapons, and benefiting from clean nuclear electricity and nuclear medicine. The order was led by the United States, but it would not have been possible without strong support from Russia. Russia’s shelling of a nuclear power station and its irresponsible incursion into Chernobyl’s contaminated areas along with threatening to use nuclear weapons has turned Russia from a responsible state to a nuclear pariah.


Adam Mount

Senior Fellow and Director, Defense Posture Project, Federation of American Scientists | @ajmount

The Russian invasion of Ukraine is set to improve the ability of the United States and its allies to deter aggression with indirect means while paradoxically increasing investment in orthodox tools. The invasion has been ruinous for Russia — its economy devastated by punishment from governments and corporations, its military depleted in manpower, munitions, and support from the Russian public. Economic punishment and asymmetric warfare with advanced weapons should give any potential aggressor pause. At the same time, the United States will likely rededicate itself to nuclear deterrence and forward the presence of conventional forces that are already stretched too thin.

[Biden] should explain how unified action against aggression by a coalition of countries with different forms of government will lead to a more inclusive and equitable rules-based international order.

Nancy Gallagher

William Pomeranz

Acting Director, Kennan Institute at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Three months of vicious fighting have confirmed that Putin wants to take Russia out of the post-World War II (and post-Cold War) international order. Putin clearly believes his view of Russian interests overrides the principle of sovereignty – the backbone of international relations. Moreover, the list of international institutions that Russia intends to leave – or has already left – continues to grow, including the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, and the Council of Europe. NATO may have emerged strengthened, but the rest of the international legal order that arose from World War II, Nuremburg, and Helsinki remains in decline and is unlikely to be revived anytime soon. 


Stewart Prager

Professor of Astrophysical Sciences, Affiliated Faculty, Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University

Public alarm at the threats of nuclear use by Putin could propel the fragile nuclear world order in either of two directions. It could induce nations to develop nuclear weapons for protection from invasions, stimulate weapon states to enhance nuclear capability, and accelerate the new nuclear arms race currently underway. Or it could be a wake-up call to move toward a world without nuclear threat. The Ukraine crisis opens an opportunity to fight for the latter. But, I fear and expect, at least in the U.S., that voices for the first direction will prevail, further eroding international nuclear arms control.

The war in Ukraine is a deep, self-inflicted wound to Russia and its global standing. Moscow’s influence in the future world order will depend much more now on its willingness to serve as China’s junior partner.

Alexandra Vacroux

Todd Sechser

Professor of Politics and Public Policy, University of Virginia

Russia has given us a vivid reminder that nuclear weapons are not a magic wand. As the war began, Vladimir Putin made several nuclear threats – both explicit and implied. But the fear of nuclear escalation has not intimidated Ukraine into submission. Nor have these threats dissuaded the West from imposing crippling sanctions on Russia and providing military aid to Ukraine. If anything, Putin’s nuclear bellicosity has only fueled the international backlash against Russia. The war has thrown a spotlight on the political limits of nuclear weapons, and dictators with nuclear ambitions should take note.


Alexandra Vacroux