Don’t Forget About the Sixth Seal (Revelation 6:12)

Don’t forget about earthquakes, feds tell city

Although New York’s modern skyscrapers are less likely to be damaged in an earthquake than shorter structures, a new study suggests the East Coast is more vulnerable than previously thought. The new findings will help alter building codes.By Mark FaheyJuly 18, 2014 10:03 a.m.The U.S. Geological Survey had good and bad news for New Yorkers on Thursday. In releasing its latest set of seismic maps the agency said earthquakes are a slightly lower hazard for New York City’s skyscrapers than previously thought, but on the other hand noted that the East Coast may be able to produce larger, more dangerous earthquakes than previous assessments have indicated.The 2014 maps were created with input from hundreds of experts from across the country and are based on much stronger data than the 2008 maps, said Mark Petersen, chief of the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project. The bottom line for the nation’s largest city is that the area is at a slightly lower risk for the types of slow-shaking earthquakes that are especially damaging to tall spires of which New York has more than most places, but the city is still at high risk due to its population density and aging structures, said Mr. Petersen.“Many of the overall patterns are the same in this map as in previous maps,” said Mr. Petersen. “There are large uncertainties in seismic hazards in the eastern United States. [New York City] has a lot of exposure and some vulnerability, but people forget about earthquakes because you don’t see damage from ground shaking happening very often.”Just because they’re infrequent doesn’t mean that large and potentially disastrous earthquakes can’t occur in the area. The new maps put the largest expected magnitude at 8, significantly higher than the 2008 peak of 7.7 on a logarithmic scale.The scientific understanding of East Coast earthquakes has expanded in recent years thanks to a magnitude 5.8 earthquake in Virginia in 2011 that was felt by tens of millions of people across the eastern U.S. New data compiled by the nuclear power industry has also helped experts understand quakes.“The update shows New York at an intermediate level,” said Arthur Lerner-Lam, deputy director of Columbia’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. “You have to combine that with the exposure of buildings and people and the fragility of buildings and people. In terms of safety and economics, New York has a substantial risk.”Oddly enough, it’s not the modern tall towers that are most at risk. Those buildings become like inverted pendulums in the high frequency shakes that are more common on the East Coast than in the West. But the city’s old eight- and 10-story masonry structures could suffer in a large quake, said Mr. Lerner-Lam. Engineers use maps like those released on Thursday to evaluate the minimum structural requirements at building sites, he said. The risk of an earthquake has to be determined over the building’s life span, not year-to-year.“If a structure is going to exist for 100 years, frankly, it’s more than likely it’s going to see an earthquake over that time,” said Mr. Lerner-Lam. “You have to design for that event.”The new USGS maps will feed into the city’s building-code review process, said a spokesman for the New York City Department of Buildings. Design provisions based on the maps are incorporated into a standard by the American Society of Civil Engineers, which is then adopted by the International Building Code and local jurisdictions like New York City. New York’s current provisions are based on the 2010 standards, but a new edition based on the just-released 2014 maps is due around 2016, he said.“The standards for seismic safety in building codes are directly based upon USGS assessments of potential ground shaking from earthquakes, and have been for years,” said Jim Harris, a member and former chair of the Provisions Update Committee of the Building Seismic Safety Council, in a statement.The seismic hazard model also feeds into risk assessment and insurance policies, according to Nilesh Shome, senior director of Risk Management Solutions, the largest insurance modeler in the industry. The new maps will help the insurance industry as a whole price earthquake insurance and manage catastrophic risk, said Mr. Shome. The industry collects more than $2.5 billion in premiums for earthquake insurance each year and underwrites more than $10 trillion in building risk, he said.“People forget about history, that earthquakes have occurred in these regions in the past, and that they will occur in the future,” said Mr. Petersen. “They don’t occur very often, but the consequences and the costs can be high.”

Israel levels Palestinian farmland outside the Temple Walls: Revelation 11

Palestinian farmers harvest their crops as land levelling works carried out by Israeli forces take place in Gaza on 13 January 2021 [Ali Jadallah/Anadolu Agency]

Israel levels Palestinian farmland in Gaza

February 15, 2021

Palestinian farmers harvest their crops as land levelling works carried out by Israeli forces take place in Gaza on 13 January 2021 [Ali Jadallah/Anadolu Agency]November 23, 2021 at 2:41 pm 

The Israeli occupation army this morning carried out an incursion into a border area in the east of the Gaza Strip, the Palestinian Information Centre reported.

According to local sources, armoured bulldozers escorted by several military vehicles advanced from a military post into a border area in the east of Gaza City.

The bulldozers levelled and dug swaths of agricultural land, which are located a few metres from the fence between the besieged enclave and the occupation state.

Israel’s army regularly shoots at and levels agricultural land in the area around the fence causing considerable damage to crops and preventing farmers from working their fields.

Such incursions are a violation of the last ceasefire between the Palestinian resistance and the occupation state, which came into effect in May.

Pakistan Horn’s Second Strike Capability: Revelation 8

Critical Evaluation of Pakistan’ss Second Strike Capability

November 23, 2021

“Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants. We know more about war than we know about peace, more about killing than we know about living. We have grasped the mystery of the atom and rejected the Sermon on the Mount.”    ― Gen Omar Bradley

Warfare is a constant phenomenon of human history. To ensure its survival, man has always endeavored to acquire more potent weapon systems. The Final year of World War-2 witnessed the advent of nuclear age when US dropped an atomic bomb on Japan. This gave birth to a new debate in International Relations. US and USSR are the pioneer of the nuclear era and the Cold War saw a significant development in the theory and practice of nuclear weapons. In 1956, the Soviet Union fielded a Zulu-Class submarine equipped with one Scud ballistic missile. This was to strike back the US with nuclear weapon in the event of massive American strike against the land based weapons of USSR. This was the genesis of the Second Strike Capability. It is a concept which suggests to have nuclear weapons safe from first strike of the adversary so that it could be used for retaliation. This will deter the adversary from carrying out a first strike. A submarine is considered as a reliable platform for assured and credible second strike capability. Pakistan and India are adversaries since 1947. Both the countries have fought many wars. The year 1998 saw the advent of nuclear weapons in South Asia when India and Pakistan became an overt nuclear weapons state. Since then, both the countries are involved in nuclear arm race and in this arm race India had attained the second strike capability with the induction of INS-Arihant which is a nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine. This capability is causing instability in the region. Pakistan do not wants to be dominated by India due to which it has also started work to achieve second strike capability. That’s why Pakistan has developed a submarine based cruise missile Babur-III with a range of 450 km, which provides second strike capability to Pakistan. This paper would highlight why second strike capability of Pakistan is not yet credible and still in the stages of maturity. For the purpose of research, secondary data like news articles and research papers have been reviewed.

Pakistan and India are rivals since their independence from British. There is a security dilemma between these two states. Due to which Pakistan and India both are indulged in arm race. The stance of Pakistan is always reactive. Pakistan always responds to the action taken by India like attainment of nuclear arsenals, second strike capability. Indian aggressive nuclear programs causes strategic instability in the region. Pakistan response is always aimed at balancing against India to ensure strategic stability of South Asia. In 2004, India made a comprehensive plan for the modernization of its nuclear force. It also included the development of four indigenous nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBN). In 2010, India started its work and in 2018 the Indian Navy launched its first nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine, INS Arihant. Through this submarine India attained its second strike capability and three submarines are under work. To bring parity, Pakistan made modifications in its conventional submarines that uses an air independent propulsion system, and equipped them with a modified cruise missile, Babur-III. This is considered as a second strike capability for Pakistan.

Now the debate is that whether the Pakistan’s second strike capability is credible or not. For the credible second strike capability, possession of an SSBN is crucial as it stays under the water for a longer period of time without being detected. Such kind of characteristics is present in INS Arihant whereas Pakistan have conventional submarine which cannot stay for a longer period of time under water. Currently, Pakistan has modified only one of its submarines. Due to maintenance and logistic issues, one submarine cannot be remained in waters all the time, thus compromising the deterrence.

Secondly, Pakistan has incorporated short range cruise missile in its submarine with the range of 450 km which only threatened the coastal cities of India like Mumbai. If India moves all its land based arsenals far from the range of Pakistan then Pakistan’s second strike capability would not be able to annihilate its land based nuclear arsenals. So here is a limiting factor in second strike capability of Pakistan. For a true and credible second strike, at least a medium range submarine launched ballistic missile is vital.

Lastly, a robust Nuclear Command, Control and Communication (NC3) system also plays a very crucial role in ensuring the deterrence. This is a hierarchy of national command authority that explains the chain through which order of strategic launching is passed to the commanding officer of the launch platform, submarine in this case. This mechanism is made to prevent unauthorized/accidental launch of nuclear weapon. A robust communication network is required for communicating the order. To communicate the order from National Command Authority for the launch of Babur-III missile, there must be a proper Nuclear Command, Control & Communications system. At present, this is a challenge for Pakistan because ordinary communication methods are not suitable for nuclear operation. So this mechanism of command and control is in its early stages in Pakistan. This command and control system of Pakistan may compromise its deterrence.

From the research work it is concluded that currently Pakistan’s second strike capability is not yet credible. At the time of hostility it would not deter the enemy completely. There are many limiting factors in Pakistan’s second strike capability. Pakistan entails to invest in nuclear power ballistic missiles submarines as it provides an assured and viable second strike capability by remaining submerged under the ocean for a longer time. It will add credibility to its second strike capability. Secondly Pakistan should develop a long range submarine launched ballistic missiles to deter India completely and ensure its policy of full spectrum deterrence.

Asma Tanveer is a student of Strategic and Nuclear Studies at National Defence University. She has great interest in international politics, nuclear politics, and strategies of warfare.

How the Antichrist will shape the Iraq government

Analysis: How would Al-Sadr’s conditions affect government formation?

While the process of the government formation in Iraq a month after the parliamentary election remains in political gridlock as a result of the protest of a number of Shiite factions that questioned the credibility of voting and courting mechanism, now all eyes are on the stances of Muqtada al-Sadr, the leader of Sadrist Movement and Saerun parliamentary coalition which holds the majority with 73 seats.

AhlulBayt News Agency (ABNA): While the process of the government formation in Iraq a month after the parliamentary election remains in political gridlock as a result of the protest of a number of Shiite factions that questioned the credibility of voting and courting mechanism, now all eyes are on the stances of Muqtada al-Sadr, the leader of Sadrist Movement and Saerun parliamentary coalition which holds the majority with 73 seats. 

Al-Sadr, who in his recent statement stressed the need to form an inclusive government, raised hopes among other Shiite movements that they could reach an agreement with him to form a coalition, and even the Shiite Coordination Framework (SCF), a coalition of Shiite parties excluding Sadrist Movement, said that it was in negotiations with the movement for a return to the Shiite body as a prelude to an agreement. However, in a move contrary to expectations, al-Sadr in his latest televised speech set conditions for the inclusion of political forces in the process of forming a new cabinet, which in practice made the situation even more complicated than before.

In one of his most important conditions, al-Sadr called on the groups protesting the election results to “immediately” disband the armed groups and deliver the arms to Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), a voluntary force formed in 2014 in opposition to ISIS terrorist group, via the chief of general staff. He added that the PMF should not participate in the political process.

Following the comments, on Friday, al-Sadr said that as a measure of goodwill, he dissolved Yaum Allah Brigade.

Yaum Allah Brigade was founded by him in 2008 to fight the American occupying forces. It was reactivated in 2014, the year ISIS seized large tracts of Iraqi territory, following a fatwa by the grand Shiite cleric in Iraq Sayed Ali al-Sistani as part of the PMF, also called Hashd Al-Sha’abi. Al-Sadr has another armed group under his command called Saraya Al-Salam that also acts under the PMF and thus is a legal force. 

Conditions with dual goals 

Certainly, the conditions set to others, especially the Shiite factions, are simple but not easy. On the one hand, they look simple because the management of forces and their arms under the PMF is a demand that the powerful factions in the PMF are seeking. On the other hand, fact-checking of this issue is not easy because the turbulent conditions in Iraq in the past years during ISIS crisis and especially after the US sought ways to keep its forces in the country and thus resorted to destabilization caused a situation in which management of arms is not easy. Some armed and violent measures are made by anti-PMF forces to blacken the image of the voluntary force. The latest action was the apparantly staged drone attack on the house of Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi that was meant to block possible alliance between Sadrist Movement and the SCF. 

Al-Sadr is not unaware of this reality. So, his conditions are dual-faced. On the one side, he looks to save his vote base which is constituted by people discontented with the past management by putting up a uncompromising, anti-corruption face. His demand for delivery of corrupt figures to an independent court and exclusion of militias to the PMF are to this end. 

On the other side, he is sending a warning to the Sunni and Kurdish sides. 

Firstly, al-Sadr is well aware that the resistant groups are powerful in the political arena, and that the results of the current elections, even in case of no change in the future, do not reflect the social and political status of the resistant groups. It is noteworthy that the Sadrist Movement gained less votes than Fatah Coalition. In other words, the Saerun Coalition ranked first thanks to the new election law, while in terms of popular votes the Fatah Coalition outnumbers it. The new law adopts “single non-transferable vote system” (one vote, one candidate, multiple seats per constituency).

According to the old electoral system (open or closed list), the votes obtained by one candidate can be distributed among other candidates of the same party, in such a way that if, for example, 5,000 votes are needed to win a seat in parliament and one of the candidates gets 10,000 votes, the surplus will go to another candidate from the same party. On the other hand, the new law stipulates that the votes of one candidate are non-transferable to another candidate, which led to the loss of a large number of votes of the Fatah. 

Fatah is comprised of rival factions like Badr Organization, Al-Sadeqoum Movement, and others. On the opposition side, al-Sadr bloc, for example in Al-Qadisiyyah, gained the largest votes number with a single candidate. A female candidate gained the constituency’s seat through female share. 

Secondly, al-Sadr does not want to shoulder the responsibilities of the government alone or take the blame for any failure, as he is aware of the large-scale problems the country is grappling with. The rational and nationalist thinking is that in the context of the many crises in Iraq, such as the decline in public confidence or the US attempt to undermine the political process and military stay in the country, the approach of maximum participation should be on the agenda of political groups.

Also, al-Sadr knows that the Kurds and Sunnis would not easily go with his demands related to cabinet formation and seek as much privileges as possible. The government formation process in Iraq is much more complicated than simply distributing the ministerial posts. The process covers a wide-ranging agreement on distribution of key posts in the government bureaucracy and gaining influence on the financial institutions like the central bank.




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The Amazing Capabilities of the China Nuclear Horn: Daniel 7

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It may be exploring orbital strikes as a way to counter American advancements in shooting down ballistic missiles before they can threaten the U.S. homeland. Last year, the U.S. Navy successfully intercepted a mock intercontinental ballistic missile.Hypersonic Weapons Test ‘Concerning’: Gen. Milley WATCH: “What we saw was a very significant event of a test of a hypersonic weapon system. And it is very concerning,” General Mark Milley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said in an interview for “The David RubensteinSource: Bloomberg

China’s Hypersonic Test Showed Unprecedented Capability, FT Says

Bloomberg News November 21, 2021, 7:29 PM MST Updated on November 22, 2021, 1:45 AM MST

China fired a missile from a hypersonic weapon as it approached a target during a test in July, the Financial Times reported, adding the Pentagon was surprised because no nation was known to have the capability

A hypersonic glide vehicle launched by China fired the projectile over the South China Sea while moving at five times the speed of sound, the newspaper reported, citing people familiar with the intelligence.

Some military experts believe an air-to-air missile was fired, the newspaper said. Others thought it was a countermeasure that could hurt the ability of missile defense systems to knock out the hypersonic weapon, which can carry a nuclear warhead, in a battle.

China’s Orbiting Missile Exploits Weakness in U.S. Defenses

The Financial Times reported last month that China conducted hypersonic weapons tests on July 27 and again on Aug. 13, raising concern in Washington about Beijing’s advancing military capabilities. 

China’s Foreign Ministry said in October the nation had tested “a routine spacecraft” to see if it was reusable, an assertion ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian repeated Monday at a regular press briefing in Beijing.

In an apparent effort to dismiss the idea the spacecraft launched anything, Zhao added: “After separating from the spacecraft before its return, the supporting devices will burn up when they are falling in the atmosphere.”

Hypersonic Weapons — Who Has Them and Why It Matters: QuickTake

“I certainly can’t think of any technical precedent to a hypersonic glide vehicle releasing some sort of payload — implied to be a missile by the FT story,” said Ankit Panda, the Stanton senior fellow in the nuclear policy program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

“I do wonder, however, if this ‘missile’ may have been some other sort of payload, perhaps a countermeasure or some other sort of support mechanism,” he said. Panda added there are questions about the military utility of such a demonstration, and the international community shouldn’t assume China intends to deploy such a weapon in the field.

— With assistance by Philip Glamann(Updates China Foreign Ministry comments from the fifth paragraph.)

Palestinians clash with police outside the Temple Walls: Revelation 11

Palestinian rioters clash with Israeli police at the entrance to Jerusalem's Shuafat Refugee Camp, November 21, 2021. (Screenshot: Twitter)

Palestinians clash with police in East J’lem after march supporting their Hamas terrorist

Hundreds chant pro-Hamas slogans in Shuafat refugee camp; right-wing Israelis march through Old City to mourn Eli Kay, killed by terrorist gunman, some chanting anti-Arab slogans

By Aaron Boxerman21 Nov 2021, 11:28 pm

Clashes broke out between Palestinians and Israeli security forces in Jerusalem on Sunday night after hundreds marched in Shuafat Refugee Camp to honor Hamas terrorist Fadi Abu Shkhaydam, who killed an Israeli and wounded four others in Jerusalem’s Old City earlier in the day.

In videos circulating on social media, dozens of Palestinians can be seen hurling rocks as tear gas — apparently fired by police — fills the air around them. Israeli police had raidedthe neighborhood following the Sunday terror attack, reportedly arresting three relatives of Abu Shkhaydam’s family.

Paramedics also reported two Molotov cocktail attacks in the Jerusalem area, although it was not immediately clear who the perpetrators were.

One explosive bottle was hurled at a 30-year-old man near the Old City, who suffered light burns, according to Magen David Adom emergency responders.

The second Molotov cocktail was hurled at a bus near the Hizma checkpoint between Jerusalem and the West Bank. The bus driver, 25, was treated for shock; no passengers were hurt, MDA medics said.

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The widening unrest was sparked by the bloody terror attack in the Old City. On Sunday morning, Abu Shkhaydam drew a submachine near the Chain Gate, which leads to the holy Temple Mount site, and opened fire on passersby.

Israeli police officers returned fire and killed Abu Shkhaydam on the scene, but not before he fatally wounded South African immigrant Eliyahu David Kay and seriously wounded another Israeli yeshiva student. Three other Israelis were treated for moderate to light wounds.

On Sunday night, hundreds of Palestinians marched towards Abu Shkhaydam’s house. Many could be seen waving the green flags emblazoned with the Islamic credo of faith, that are often associated with Hamas.Advertisement

“Millions of martyrs will march to Jerusalem,” the protesters chanted, according to videos circulating on social media.

In other videos, the Palestinian marchers pledged allegiance to shadowy Hamas terror chief Mohammad Deif.

Put sword next to sword,” Shuafat camp residents chanted, a reference to Hamas’ logo, which features crossed blades. “We’re Mohammad Deif’s men.”

An umbrella coalition of Palestinian “Islamic and Nationalist Factions” in Shuafat declared a general strike in shops and schools in memory of Abu Shkhaydam.

Separately, dozens of right-wing Israeli nationalists marched through the Old City to the scene of the attack. They were joined by Simcha Rothman and Orit Struck, parliamentarians from the hard-right Religious Zionism party, who lit candles in memory of the late Kay.

In some videos, Jewish demonstrators chanted anti-Arab slogans, such as, “May their village burn!”Advertisement

Kay had served in the Israel Defense Forces as a lone soldier (one of the soldiers from foreign countries who move to Israel without family) in the Paratroopers Brigade, until August 2019.

“He gave everything for this country,” his brother Kasriel told reporters on Sunday evening.

Israeli officials said they believed Abu Shkhaydam had planned his attack well in advance, citing the sophisticated submachine gun he had acquired. His wife and children also left the country three days ago, according to Public Security Minister Omer Barlev.

In Shuafat, Abu Shkhaydam raised five children — three boys and two daughters — and taught Islamic law at a boys high school, for which he received a salary from the Jerusalem municipality. According to Israeli authorities, he was a member of Hamas’ civilian branch, rather than its armed wing.

“He was the best teacher. He never cursed anyone, or called anyone a bad name, except the Jews, may God burn them,” Shuafat resident Mustafa Zaattra, a student of Abu Skhaydam, told al-Qastal.

Abu Shkhaydam also preached in local mosques. In a 2020 sermon circulated on social media, he assailed “the Jewish and Christian masters of heresy” as being “led by the devil.” Seething at the United Arab Emirates’ decision to normalize ties with Israel, he called the Emiratis, “filthy Bedouins.”

“They are joined by those with ulterior motives…all these unite for one thing only — to fight against God,” Abu Shkhaydam said at the time.

In a statement, Hamas praised Abu Shkhaydam for having spent his life “in proselytizing and in struggle.”

“This heroic operation carries a warning to the criminal enemy and its government to stop its aggression against our land and our holy sites,” the terror group said.

The attack was the second in recent days in Jerusalem’s Old City. East Jerusalem teenager Amr Abu Asab, 16, sought to stab police officers before being shot by a local civilian on Thursday night. Hamas also later claimed Asab as a member.

Asab’s death has sparked repeated nightly clashes between police and Palestinians in Issawiya, where he lived. On Saturday night, Palestinian residents managed to set a police water cannon on fire as it was deployed in the neighborhood.

Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said on Sunday morning that authorities were concerned about attacks inspired by the two successive acts of terrorism.

“This is the second terrorist attack in Jerusalem in recent days. I have instructed the security forces to mobilize accordingly and demonstrate vigilance, also due to concern over copycat attacks,” the premier said in a statement.

The six quakes preceding the sixth seal: Revelation 6

Photo by Colin Lloyd on Unsplash

These 6 Earthquakes Caused the Most Significant Damage in NY

Published: November 22, 2021

When we think of earthquakes, we normally think of California. But New York has had its fair share of quakes too. Between 1737 and 2016 there were 550 earthquakes across the state. The most significant earthquakes that damaged homes and businesses are listed below.

4. On April 20, 1931, 4.7 magnitude earthquake centered near Lake George damaged some homes.

3. On April 20, 2002, northern New York experienced a significant earthquake, which caused damage to homes and infrastructure in the area,

A magnitude 5.0 earthquake on April 20, 2002 caused damaged chimneys, slumps of road embankments, and other minor damage in the Au Sable Forks area.

2. (3-Way Tie) On December 18, 1737, New York City had a 5.2 magnitude earthquake, which damaged some homes. Not much is known about this quake’s epicenter.

2. (3-Way Tie) On August 10, 1884, New York City experienced another 5.2 magnitude earthquake. It caused damages to homes and businesses, including broken windows and damaged chimneys.

The shaking from this earthquake was felt as far west as Toledo, Ohio and as far east as Penobscot Bay, Maine. It was also reported felt by some in Baltimore, Maryland. The local magnitude of this earthquake has been set at 5.2.

2. (3-Way Tie) On August 12, 1929, an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.2, happened near Attica. It caused damage to homes and businesses,

In Attica many chimneys were thrown down, brick walls were cracked, and the aisles of stores were littered with goods thrown from the shelves. This earthquake was felt as far east as central New Hampshire and as far west as Cleveland, Ohio.

1. On September 5, 1944, New York experienced a 5.9 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter around the New York and Canadian border. Massena, New York, and Cornwall, Ontario suffered the most damage from this quake,

In Massena a school gymnasium suffered major damage, 90% of the chimneys were destroyed or damaged, and house foundations were cracked, windows were broken, and plumbing was damaged. Similar kinds of damage were reported at Cornwall, Ontario. This earthquake was felt from eastern Maine to central Michigan and to Maryland.

LOOK: The most expensive weather and climate disasters in recent decades

Stacker ranked the most expensive climate disasters by the billions since 1980 by the total cost of all damages, adjusted for inflation, based on 2021 data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The list starts with Hurricane Sally, which caused $7.3 billion in damages in 2020, and ends with a devastating 2005 hurricane that caused $170 billion in damage and killed at least 1,833 people. Keep reading to discover the 50 of the most expensive climate disasters in recent decades in the U.S.

Gallery Credit: KATELYN LEBOFF