Brace Yourselves, New Yorkers, You’re Due for a Major QuakeA couple of hundred thousand years ago, an M 7.2 earthquake shook what is now New Hampshire. Just a few thousand years ago, an M 7.5 quake ruptured just off the coast of Massachusetts. And then there’s New York.Since the first western settlers arrived there, the state has witnessed 200 quakes of magnitude 2.0 or greater, making it the third most seismically active state east of the Mississippi (Tennessee and South Carolina are ranked numbers one and two, respectively). About once a century, New York has also experienced an M 5.0 quake capable of doing real damage.The most recent one near New York City occurred in August of 1884. Centered off Long Island’s Rockaway Beach, it was felt over 70,000 square miles. It also opened enormous crevices near the Brooklyn reservoir and knocked down chimneys and cracked walls in Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Police on the Brooklyn Bridge said it swayed “as if struck by a hurricane” and worried the bridge’s towers would collapse. Meanwhile, residents throughout New York and New Jersey reported sounds that varied from explosions to loud rumblings, sometimes to comic effect. At the funeral of Lewis Ingler, a small group of mourners were watching as the priest began to pray. The quake cracked an enormous mirror behind the casket and knocked off a display of flowers that had been resting on top of it. When it began to shake the casket’s silver handles, the mourners decided the unholy return of Lewis Ingler was more than they could take and began flinging themselves out windows and doors.Not all stories were so light. Two people died during the quake, both allegedly of fright. Out at sea, the captain of the brig Alice felt a heavy lurch that threw him and his crew, followed by a shaking that lasted nearly a minute. He was certain he had hit a wreck and was taking on water.A day after the quake, the editors of The New York Times sought to allay readers’ fear. The quake, they said, was an unexpected fluke never to be repeated and not worth anyone’s attention: “History and the researches of scientific men indicate that great seismic disturbances occur only within geographical limits that are now well defined,” they wrote in an editorial. “The northeastern portion of the United States . . . is not within those limits.” The editors then went on to scoff at the histrionics displayed by New York residents when confronted by the quake: “They do not stop to reason or to recall the fact that earthquakes here are harmless phenomena. They only know that the solid earth, to whose immovability they have always turned with confidence when everything else seemed transitory, uncertain, and deceptive, is trembling and in motion, and the tremor ceases long before their disturbed minds become tranquil.”That’s the kind of thing that drives Columbia’s Heather Savage nuts.New York, she says, is positively vivisected by faults. Most of them fall into two groups—those running northeast and those running northwest. Combined they create a brittle grid underlying much of Manhattan.Across town, Charles Merguerian has been studying these faults the old‐fashioned way: by getting down and dirty underground. He’s spent the past forty years sloshing through some of the city’s muckiest places: basements and foundations, sewers and tunnels, sometimes as deep as 750 feet belowground. His tools down there consist primarily of a pair of muck boots, a bright blue hard hat, and a pickax. In public presentations, he claims he is also ably abetted by an assistant hamster named Hammie, who maintains his own website, which includes, among other things, photos of the rodent taking down Godzilla.That’s just one example why, if you were going to cast a sitcom starring two geophysicists, you’d want Savage and Merguerian to play the leading roles. Merguerian is as eccentric and flamboyant as Savage is earnest and understated. In his press materials, the former promises to arrive at lectures “fully clothed.” Photos of his “lab” depict a dingy porta‐john in an abandoned subway tunnel. He actively maintains an archive of vintage Chinese fireworks labels at least as extensive as his list of publications, and his professional website includes a discography of blues tunes particularly suitable for earthquakes. He calls female science writers “sweetheart” and somehow manages to do so in a way that kind of makes them like it (although they remain nevertheless somewhat embarrassed to admit it).It’s Merguerian’s boots‐on‐the‐ground approach that has provided much of the information we need to understand just what’s going on underneath Gotham. By his count, Merguerian has walked the entire island of Manhattan: every street, every alley. He’s been in most of the tunnels there, too. His favorite one by far is the newest water tunnel in western Queens. Over the course of 150 days, Merguerian mapped all five miles of it. And that mapping has done much to inform what we know about seismicity in New York.Most importantly, he says, it provided the first definitive proof of just how many faults really lie below the surface there. And as the city continues to excavate its subterranean limits, Merguerian is committed to following closely behind. It’s a messy business.Down below the city, Merguerian encounters muck of every flavor and variety. He power‐washes what he can and relies upon a diver’s halogen flashlight and a digital camera with a very, very good flash to make up the difference. And through this process, Merguerian has found thousands of faults, some of which were big enough to alter the course of the Bronx River after the last ice age.His is a tricky kind of detective work. The center of a fault is primarily pulverized rock. For these New York faults, that gouge was the very first thing to be swept away by passing glaciers. To do his work, then, he’s primarily looking for what geologists call “offsets”—places where the types of rock don’t line up with one another. That kind of irregularity shows signs of movement over time—clear evidence of a fault.Merguerian has found a lot of them underneath New York City.These faults, he says, do a lot to explain the geological history of Manhattan and the surrounding area. They were created millions of years ago, when what is now the East Coast was the site of a violent subduction zone not unlike those present now in the Pacific’s Ring of Fire.Each time that occurred, the land currently known as the Mid‐Atlantic underwent an accordion effect as it was violently folded into itself again and again. The process created immense mountains that have eroded over time and been further scoured by glaciers. What remains is a hodgepodge of geological conditions ranging from solid bedrock to glacial till to brittle rock still bearing the cracks of the collision. And, says Merguerian, any one of them could cause an earthquake.You don’t have to follow him belowground to find these fractures. Even with all the development in our most built‐up metropolis, evidence of these faults can be found everywhere—from 42nd Street to Greenwich Village. But if you want the starkest example of all, hop the 1 train at Times Square and head uptown to Harlem. Not far from where the Columbia University bus collects people for the trip to the Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory, the subway tracks seem to pop out of the ground onto a trestle bridge before dropping back down to earth. That, however, is just an illusion. What actually happens there is that the ground drops out below the train at the site of one of New York’s largest faults. It’s known by geologists in the region as the Manhattanville or 125th Street Fault, and it runs all the way across the top of Central Park and, eventually, underneath Long Island City. Geologists have known about the fault since 1939, when the city undertook a massive subway mapping project, but it wasn’t until recently that they confirmed its potential for a significant quake.In our lifetimes, a series of small earthquakes have been recorded on the Manhattanville Fault including, most recently, one on October 27, 2001. Its epicenter was located around 55th and 8th—directly beneath the original Original Soupman restaurant, owned by restaurateur Ali Yeganeh, the inspiration for Seinfeld’s Soup Nazi. That fact delighted sitcom fans across the country, though few Manhattanites were in any mood to appreciate it.The October 2001 quake itself was small—about M 2.6—but the effect on residents there was significant. Just six weeks prior, the city had been rocked by the 9/11 terrorist attacks that brought down the World Trade Center towers. The team at Lamont‐Doherty has maintained a seismic network in the region since the ’70s. They registered the collapse of the first tower at M 2.1. Half an hour later, the second tower crumbled with even more force and registered M 2.3. In a city still shocked by that catastrophe, the early‐morning October quake—several times greater than the collapse of either tower—jolted millions of residents awake with both reminders of the tragedy and fear of yet another attack. 9‐1‐1 calls overwhelmed dispatchers and first responders with reports of shaking buildings and questions about safety in the city. For seismologists, though, that little quake was less about foreign threats to our soil and more about the possibility of larger tremors to come.Remember: The Big Apple has experienced an M 5.0 quake about every hundred years. The last one was that 1884 event. And that, says Merguerian, means the city is overdue. Just how overdue?“Gee whiz!” He laughs when I pose this question. “That’s the holy grail of seismicity, isn’t it?”He says all we can do to answer that question is “take the pulse of what’s gone on in recorded history.” To really have an answer, we’d need to have about ten times as much data as we do today. But from what he’s seen, the faults below New York are very much alive.“These guys are loaded,” he tells me.He says he is also concerned about new studies of a previously unknown fault zone known as the Ramapo that runs not far from the city. Savage shares his concerns. They both think it’s capable of an M 6.0 quake or even higher—maybe even a 7.0. If and when, though, is really anybody’s guess.“We literally have no idea what’s happening in our backyard,” says Savage.What we do know is that these quakes have the potential to do more damage than similar ones out West, mostly because they are occurring on far harder rock capable of propagating waves much farther. And because these quakes occur in places with higher population densities, these eastern events can affect a lot more people. Take the 2011 Virginia quake: Although it was only a moderate one, more Americans felt it than any other one in our nation’s history.That’s the thing about the East Coast: Its earthquake hazard may be lower than that of the West Coast, but the total effect of any given quake is much higher. Disaster specialists talk about this in terms of risk, and they make sense of it with an equation that multiplies the potential hazard of an event by the cost of damage and the number of people harmed. When you take all of those factors into account, the earthquake risk in New York is much greater than, say, that in Alaska or Hawaii or even a lot of the area around the San Andreas Fault.Merguerian has been sounding the alarm about earthquake risk in the city since the ’90s. He admits he hasn’t gotten much of a response. He says that when he first proposed the idea of seismic risk in New York City, his fellow scientists “booed and threw vegetables” at him. He volunteered his services to the city’s Office of Emergency Management but says his original offer also fell on deaf ears.“So I backed away gently and went back to academia.”Today, he says, the city isn’t much more responsive, but he’s getting a much better response from his peers.He’s glad for that, he says, but it’s not enough. If anything, the events of 9/11, along with the devastation caused in 2012 by Superstorm Sandy, should tell us just how bad it could be there.He and Savage agree that what makes the risk most troubling is just how little we know about it. When it comes right down to it, intraplate faults are the least understood. Some scientists think they might be caused by mantle flow deep below the earth’s crust. Others think they might be related to gravitational energy. Still others think quakes occurring there might be caused by the force of the Atlantic ridge as it pushes outward. Then again, it could be because the land is springing back after being compressed thousands of years ago by glaciers (a phenomenon geologists refer to as seismic rebound).“We just have no consciousness towards earthquakes in the eastern United States,” says Merguerian. “And that’s a big mistake.”Adapted from Quakeland: On the Road to America’s Next Devastating Earthquake by Kathryn Miles, published by Dutton, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House, LLC. Copyright © 2017 by Kathryn Miles. Thanks
VLADIMIR Putin has hinted about a future military alliance between Russia and China that would be more powerful than the US.
The two powers combined would outnumber the US Army some two to one, have three times as many tanks and warships, and have more nuclear weapons.
Missile launchers rumble through in Moscow during a military paradeCredit: Getty Images – Getty
Vladimir Putin hinted of a new alliance between Russia and ChinaCredit: AP:Associated Press
China and Russia have the world’s second and third most powerful militaries – and a formal alliance could help tip the scales against the US.
Putin signaled deepening ties between Moscow and Beijing as both have ongoing tensions with Washington.
Russia continues to try and thrash out a new arms treaty, while facing ongoing allegations of election interference in the US along with military tensions in Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
China meanwhile has seen relations with the US plunge to new lows due to the coronavirus pandemic and rows over the South China Sea and Taiwan.
Vlad was quizzed on whether he could envision a military alliance between Moscow and Beijing during a conference call on Thursday.
He replied: “‘We don’t need it, but, theoretically, it’s quite possible to imagine it.”
Russia and China have hailed their “strategic partnership”, but have so far stopped short of creating a formal military alliance.
It would be worrying for the rest of the world as well, especially if Donald Trump wins the US election on November 3.
Trump has long insisted on an “America First” policy, and wants the US to have less involvement in foreign conflicts while also showing scepticism over alliances such as Nato.
Russia and China would outnumber the US – and every other military in the world – but also have advantages in several key areas.
However, even combined the two massive nations lag behind the US in military spending – with a duel total of $302billion, compared to America’s mammoth $430billion.
China has the largest number of active soldiers in the worldCredit: AFP or licensors
Russia and China combined would have 3.2million troopsCredit: Alamy Live News
Russia and China would outnumber the US two-to-one in terms of active military personnel, comparing 3.2million to 1.4million.
They would also have a vastly larger fleet of tanks – with 16,450 total – and warships, with a total of 1,380.
And with Russia already having the largest nuclear stockpile in the world, combining with China’s nukes pushes them in further ahead.
The US however would maintain advantages in some areas, such as having many more warplanes – with 13,264 compared to 7,373.
Aircraft carriers are also one of the most important ways of projecting power worldwide – and the US have 11 with two more under construction.
China has two with one under construction, and Russia has just one extremely old vessel – with the infamous, smoke belching Admiral Kuznetsov.
The US has as many aircraft carriers as the rest of the world combined, and the weapons are essential to asserting global dominance since World War 2.
Russia and China would have three times as many warshipsCredit: Alamy Live News
And an alliance would give them three times as many tanksCredit: Getty Images – Getty
Putin said recent war games Russia and China have carried out highlight how well the two country’s cooperate.
He also hinted that Russia has shared military technology with China, but declined to go into any specifics.
“Without any doubt, our cooperation with China is bolstering the defense capability of China’s army.” Putin said.
“Time will show how it will develop. We won’t exclude it.”
Putin has been key in pushing Russia to develop new weapons, including modernising its nuclear weapons.
He has repeatedly pushed for his country to be on the forefront of development of technologies such as hypersonic missiles, seen as a new frontier in weapons tech.
Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping have been deepening ties amid tensions with the USCredit: Getty Images – Getty
Putin however did say he continues to be eager to signing a new weapons treaty, with the New Start agreement set to expire in February.
The deal was signed in 2010 with US President Barack Obama, and the pact act limits each country to no more than 1,550 deployed nuclear warheads and 700 deployed missiles and bomber.
Trump has however said they would only renew the agreement if China also joins, but Beijing has refused.
US officials are now trying to push through a new agreement – with the Trump administration keen to do so before the election – with a one-year extension.
13:48, 23 Oct 2020Updated: 14:14, 23 Oct 2020
Any policy analysts, scholars or politicians who still advocate for a return to the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, aka the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), must recognize how the Iranian regime used the agreement as cover to further intensify its controversial nuclear projects.
Several credible reports and statements from senior Iranian officials have made it clear that Tehran was advancing its nuclear development even after the P5+1 (the US, the UK, France, Russia, China, and Germany) and Iran signed the nuclear deal in 2015.
A report published last week by the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI) shows that Tehran was lying to the world when it said it had stopped its nuclear activities under the JCPOA. The report claims that the Iranian regime continued to pursue the development of nuclear weapons, particularly at the Organization of Defensive Innovation and Research, which operates within the Ministry of Defense and is controlled by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).
The NCRI had previously been the first to reveal Iran’s clandestine nuclear activities at two major sites, Natanz and Arak, in 2000. Due to its connections in Iran, its information is said to have a high level of credibility. Frank Pabian, an adviser on nuclear non-proliferation matters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, told The New York Times in 2010 that the NCRI is “right 90 percent of the time.”
This new revelation should not come as a surprise, since the Tehran regime has a history of hiding its nuclear developments from the international community.
In his 2018 speech to the UN General Assembly, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu broke a story when he stated that Iran had a “secret atomic warehouse for storing massive amounts of equipment and material from (its) secret nuclear weapons program,” at a time when the regime claimed it was complying with the terms of the nuclear deal. Although Iranian leaders insisted that the nuclear warehouse was a carpet cleaning facility, traces of radioactive uranium were later detected at the site by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors.
In addition, Israel’s seizure of documents from a nuclear archive in Tehran, also in 2018, answered some questions that the IAEA had failed to address for decades. The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) subsequently reported: “Iran intended to build five nuclear warheads, each with an explosive yield of 10 kilotons and able to be delivered by ballistic missile.”
Even the head of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization, Ali Akbar Salehi, openly admitted to quietly purchasing replacement parts for its Arak nuclear reactor while Iran was conducting the negotiations for the JCPOA, under which it was required to destroy the original components. He recalled last year: “The leader (Ayatollah Ali Khamenei) warned us that they (the P5+1) were violators of agreements. We had to act wisely.” He added of the Arak nuclear reactor core: “There are tubes where the fuel goes. We had bought similar tubes, but I could not declare this at the time. When they told us to pour cement into the tubes… we said: ‘Fine. We will pour.’ But we did not tell them that we had other tubes. Otherwise, they would have told us to pour cement into those tubes as well. Now we have the same tubes.”
Furthermore, IAEA Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi in March raised serious concerns about possible clandestine and undeclared nuclear sites in Iran. He said: “The agency identified a number of questions related to possible undeclared nuclear material and nuclear-related activities at three locations in Iran. The agency sought access to two of the locations. Iran has not provided access to these locations and has not engaged in substantive discussions to clarify the agency’s questions.”
These developments demonstrate that the nuclear deal only paved the way for the Iranian regime to intensify its dangerous nuclear activities. The JCPOA provided the regime’s leaders with vast additional funding, most of which was funneled into the treasury of the IRGC for its ballistic missile and nuclear projects.
KIMBERLY MILLER | PALM BEACH POST
Katrina, Maria, Harvey and Sandy are all infamous names belonging to some of the worst hurricanes in history. But where do these names come from?
Just the FAQs, USA TODAY
PALM BEACH, Fla. — An area of disheveled showers and thunderstorms south of Cuba on Friday was given a 60% chance of becoming a tropical cyclone over the next five days as it ambles north over western Cuba and into the Gulf of Mexico.
If it develops, it could become Tropical Storm Zeta and could bring more rain to South Florida.
Early Friday, the bowl of low pressure was becoming “much better” organized and its path changed significantly, National Hurricane Center meteorologists said. The system was previously expected to travel northeast over South Florida or the Florida Straits. Now it is headed more north toward western Cuba and the Gulf of Mexico.
Invest 95L (bottom left) and Hurricane Epsilon.
In the short term, the National Weather Service in Miami is forecasting less rain Friday, but an increase on Saturday and Sunday with deteriorating marine conditions as ripples from Hurricane Epsilon reach the coast.
“It’s a bit touch-and-go on the exact precipitation chances,” said NWS meteorologist Paxton Fell. “It’s all depending on that system in the Caribbean.”
Fell said if the clot of storminess takes a southerly track, it could mean a rain reprieve. If it tracks closer to Florida, it could mean widespread rainfall of 3 to 6 inches.
Areas of coastal Palm Beach County already received nearly 5 inches of rain Monday through midday Thursday with flood advisories cycling on and off through the day.
“Right now, we just need to be ready for a return of extra-moist tropical air over the weekend,” said Miami-based meteorologist Bryan Norcross in his Hurricane Intel blog. “The odds are somewhat lower in … points north, but the line between fairly dry and quite wet will likely be sharp and it can’t be pinned down yet.”
Norcross said Hurricane Epsilon, which raced to Category 3 status Wednesday before deflating to a Category 1 Friday, will eat away at the eastern edge of high pressure over the mid-Atlantic, which has been blowing wet winds over South Florida this week.
At the same time, a dip in the jet stream will scoop up the area of low pressure and carry it northeast.
Rainfall forecast Thursday through Sunday 8 a.m.
AccuWeather meteorologists downplayed the potential for tropical development of the disturbance on Thursday.
“There have been strong winds aloft and some dry air that just disrupted any type of organizing of the system,” said AccuWeather senior meteorologist Paul Walker. “Right now, the area is so broad and general, it’s hard to say it’s moving anywhere.”
Norcross said once the low pressure in the Caribbean passes Florida on Monday, “much drier air” is expected.
“Whether this is the beginning of the fall season, is still an open question,” he said.
Follow Kimberly Miller on Twitter: @Kmillerweather.
Greek alphabet names
At least 18 unarmed and innocent Kashmiris have been killed in October and more than 40 others injured by Indian forces, according to the Pakistani Foreign Ministry.
“In brazen manifestation of state terrorism, Indian occupation forces, in the past few days, martyred five more innocent Kashmiri youth during the so-called ‘cordon and search’ operations and fake encounters in Anantnag, Shopian, and Pulwama areas of IIOJK [Indian Illegally Occupied Jammu and Kashmir],” ministry spokesman Zahid Hafeez Chaudhri told reporters Thursday.
Forty young Kashmiris were severely injured due to “unprovoked” and indiscriminate use of live ammunition, pellet guns, and other military-grade weapons.
Chaudhri, while referring to a recent statement of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michele Bachelet, said she has once again called the human rights credentials of the current RSS-BJP [Rashtriya Swayamsevak Singh-Bharatiya Janata Party] regime into question by expressing concerns about the arrest of hundreds of human rights activists as well as restrictions on works of human rights bodies.
On Tuesday, Bachelet was cited as being concerned about the use of the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act , which several UN human rights bodies have also said is vaguely worded and too broad in its objective, according to the UN News.
The act prohibits the receipt of foreign funds “for any activities prejudicial to the public interest.”
“I am concerned that such actions based on the grounds of vaguely defined ‘public interest’ leave this law open to abuse, and that it is indeed actually being used to deter or punish NGOs for human rights reporting and advocacy that the authorities perceive as critical in nature,” Bachelet said, adding that even if authorities find “constructive criticism uncomfortable, it should never be criminalized or outlawed in this way.”
Relations between the two South Asian nuclear powers’ have further flared after India scrapped the special provisions of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in August 2019.
Between August 2019 to August 2020, more than 350 people, including civilians and Indian soldiers, were killed in clashes and search operations across the Indian-administered Kashmir, according to a new report by Islamabad-based think tank Institute of Policy Studies in collaboration with the Legal Forum for Oppressed Voices of Kashmir.
It said 75 civilians, 196 militants — referred to as “freedom fighters” — and 81 Indian soldiers and paramilitary personnel were killed during clashes, said the report.
Since August last year, authorities have detained or arrested between 16,000 and 17,000 people, including 662 political prisoners, it added.
Kashmir, a Muslim-majority Himalayan region, is held by India and Pakistan in parts but claimed by both in full. A small sliver of the region is also controlled by China.
Since they were partitioned in 1947, New Delhi and Islamabad have fought three wars — in 1948, 1965, and 1971 — two of them over Kashmir.
Some Kashmiri groups have been fighting against the Indian rule for independence, or unification with Pakistan.
According to several human rights organizations, thousands have been killed and tortured in the conflict that flared up in 1989.
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23/10/2020 – 09:46
A fireball rises over the Gaza Strip city of Khan Yunis following an Israeli air strike SAID KHATIB AFP
Israeli warplanes struck suspected Hamas military targets in the Gaza Strip before dawn on Friday following rocket fire from the blockaded Palestinian territory.
Fighter jets and other aircraft struck a “weapons manufacturing site and underground infrastructures” operated by Islamist group Hamas, which has controlled the territory since 2007, the Israeli army said.
Hamas reported no casualties from the Israeli strikes on the Nuseirat refugee camp and the southern city of Khan Yunis.
Two rockets had been launched at Israel late Thursday, without causing any casualties or damage.
One was intercepted by Israeli air defences, while the other hit open ground, the army said.
The last reported rocket attack from Gaza was on Tuesday night.
It came after the army announced it had found a new tunnel that crosses “dozens of metres (yards) into Israel” from Gaza.
The next day the army said the tunnel belonged to Hamas.
Authorities have discovered some 20 tunnels originating in Gaza since 2014, army spokesman Jonathan Conricus said this week.
Israel has fought three wars with Hamas since the Islamists ousted loyalists of Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas from the territory in 2007 and there have been numerous smaller flare-ups.
An informal truce brokered by Egypt and the United Nations, with the financial support of gas-rich Qatar, has been in force since late 2018.
It has been broken several times but has been restored on each occasion.
© 2020 AFP
Zak Failla10/23/2020 11:01 a.m.
West Orange Daily Voice serves Deerpark, Greenville, Middletown, Minisink, Mount Hope, Port Jervis & Wawayanda
Some in the Hudson Valley were caught by surprise when there was a rare and unexpected earthquake in the area.
Shortly before 4:30 p.m. on Thursday, Oct. 22, there was a 2.2 magnitude earthquake in Merritt Park reported near Fishkill in Dutchess County, according to officials.
On Volcano Discovery, some residents said that they heard the quake, but couldn’t feel the ground shaking below them.
“I thought it was construction work,” a Hopewell Junction resident reported. “(It) sounded like concrete falling but more resounding. Didn’t feel a shake. Only heard sound for about two seconds then quick pause then sound for another one second.”
Earthquakes are a rarity in New York. According to Earthquake track, there have only been two reported in the past month, and 20 in the past year.