The Sixth Seal: More Than Just Manhattan (Revelation 6:12)

By Brooklyn Eagle

And Brooklyn, resting on sediment, would shake more than Manhattan, built on solid rock. “There would be more shaking and more damage,” Dr. Kim told the Brooklyn Eagle on Wednesday.

If an earthquake of a similar magnitude were to happen today near Brooklyn, “Many chimneys would topple. Poorly maintained buildings would fall down – some buildings are falling down now even without any shaking. People would not be hit by collapsing buildings, but they would be hit by falling debris. We need to get some of these buildings fixed,” he said.

But a 5.2 is “not comparable to Haiti,” he said. “That was huge.” Haiti’s devastating earthquake measured 7.0.

Brooklyn has a different environment than Haiti, and that makes all the difference, he said. Haiti is situated near tectonic plate.

“The Caribbean plate is moving to the east, while the North American plate is moving towards the west. They move about 20 mm – slightly less than an inch – every year.” The plates are sliding past each other, and the movement is not smooth, leading to jolts, he said.

While we don’t have the opportunity for a large jolt in Brooklyn, we do have small, frequent quakes of a magnitude of 2 or 3 on the Richter Scale. In 2001 alone the city experienced two quakes: one in January, measuring 2.4, and one in October, measuring 2.6. The October quake, occurring soon after Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, “caused a lot of panic,” Dr. Kim said.

“People ask me, ‘Should I get earthquake insurance?’ I tell them no, earthquake insurance is expensive. Instead, use that money to fix chimneys and other things. Rather than panicky preparations, use common sense to make things better.”

Secure bookcases to the wall and make sure hanging furniture does not fall down, Dr. Kim said. “If you have antique porcelains or dishes, make sure they’re safely stored. In California, everything is anchored to the ground.”

While a small earthquake in Brooklyn may cause panic, “In California, a quake of magnitude 2 is called a micro-quake,” he added.

These are nine of the fourteen nuclear horns of Daniel

These are the nine nuclear armed countries in the world

Gayatri Vinayak

October 11, 2019, 10:49 PM MDT

United States:

The country that started the nuclear race, the United States has 6,185 weapons, as per the Arms Control Association. It became the first and only country to deploy nuclear weapons against an enemy state when when it dropped bombs in Heroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, causing around 1,40,000 deaths by the end of the year, and leading to widespread destruction and devastation. The United States is also the only country which has stored its nuclear weapons in other nations – as per Nuclear Weapons Ban Monitor, the US has around 180 weapons stored in its air bases in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and Turkey. The country has refused to adopt a no-first use policy as it “reserves the right to use” nuclear weapons first in the case of conflict. Image credit: From left are the Peacekeeper, the Minuteman III and the Minuteman I

<img alt=”While the exact number of weapons has not been revealed, the &lt;a href=&quot;https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/russiaprofile&quot; rel=&quot;nofollow noopener&quot; target=&quot;_blank&quot; data-ylk=&quot;slk:Arms Control Association&quot; class=&quot;link rapid-noclick-resp&quot;>Arms Control Association &lt;/a>estimates the total number at 6,490 nuclear weapons, the largest stockpile among all the nations. The Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear test in 1949, becoming the second nuclear state after the United States. Between 1949 and 1991, the Soviet Union is said to have manufactured approximately 55,000 nuclear warheads. In May 1992, the four states where nuclear weapons were deployed in the former Soviet Union – Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, signed the Lisbon Protocol, agreeing to join the NPT. While Russia joined as the nuclear state, being the legal successor of the Soviet Union, the others became non-nuclear states. Today, with Russia participating in bilateral arms control treaties, the country’s nuclear stockpile has reduced. The country is, however, in the process of modernising its nuclear arsenal. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image credit:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> The mushroom cloud from the first air-dropped bomb test in 1951. By Russian department of Atomic Energy Minatom https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=26980241&#8243; src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/4hD_UKg0ZicoXO9UgPZ6dA–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTUzOS4yNDE5ODI1MDcyODg2/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/yXZw_8_V7b8APGJellyECQ–~B/aD0yODk7dz0zNDM7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/3423dd90-ec08-11e9-b773-959eca3b0074&#8243; class=”caas-img”>

Russia:

While the exact number of weapons has not been revealed, the Arms Control Association estimates the total number at 6,490 nuclear weapons, the largest stockpile among all the nations. The Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear test in 1949, becoming the second nuclear state after the United States. Between 1949 and 1991, the Soviet Union is said to have manufactured approximately 55,000 nuclear warheads. In May 1992, the four states where nuclear weapons were deployed in the former Soviet Union – Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, signed the Lisbon Protocol, agreeing to join the NPT. While Russia joined as the nuclear state, being the legal successor of the Soviet Union, the others became non-nuclear states. Today, with Russia participating in bilateral arms control treaties, the country’s nuclear stockpile has reduced. The country is, however, in the process of modernising its nuclear arsenal. Image credit: The mushroom cloud from the first air-dropped bomb test in 1951. By Russian department of Atomic Energy Minatom https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=26980241

<img alt=”The United Kingdom has a stockpile of 215 nuclear weapons, out of which 120 are usable warheads. Out of these 120 strategic warheads, not more than 40 are deployed at sea on one of its four nuclear ballistic missile submarine at any given time, under a Continuous at Sea Defense Posture. The country first conducted a nuclear test in 1952 and has since conducted 45 tests. The UK is a signatory of the nonproliferation treaty and has vowed that it will only use its nuclear weapons as defense. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> The UK’s first nuclear test, Operation Hurricane, in Australia in 1952″ src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/2Z0nsL581Udm8v3YEGAKpA–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTUyNg–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/crAtG9YRrKkKE9YBb13RWw–~B/aD01MjY7dz02NDA7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/31855960-ec12-11e9-babd-68b72dff3192&#8243; class=”caas-img”>

United Kingdom:

The United Kingdom has a stockpile of 215 nuclear weapons, out of which 120 are usable warheads. Out of these 120 strategic warheads, not more than 40 are deployed at sea on one of its four nuclear ballistic missile submarine at any given time, under a Continuous at Sea Defense Posture. The country first conducted a nuclear test in 1952 and has since conducted 45 tests. The UK is a signatory of the nonproliferation treaty and has vowed that it will only use its nuclear weapons as defense. Image: The UK’s first nuclear test, Operation Hurricane, in Australia in 1952

<img alt=”France has 300 nuclear weapons, with around 290 operational and 10 spares. The country first tested an independently developed weapon in 1960, under the Charles de Gaulle government. Under the Jacques Chirac government’s nuclear plans for the years 1997-2002, France saw the dismantling of many weapons systems. The country has also deactivated all land based nuclear missiles. France, however, maintains a first use policy where it says that it will use nuclear weapons against either nuclear or non-nuclear states only in the case of invasion or other attack against their territory or against one of their allies. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> The French nuclear-powered &lt;a href=&quot;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_carrier&quot; rel=&quot;nofollow noopener&quot; target=&quot;_blank&quot; data-ylk=&quot;slk:aircraft carrier&quot; class=&quot;link rapid-noclick-resp&quot;>aircraft carrier&lt;/a> &lt;a href=&quot;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_de_Gaulle_(R_91)&quot; rel=&quot;nofollow noopener&quot; target=&quot;_blank&quot; data-ylk=&quot;slk:Charles de Gaulle&quot; class=&quot;link rapid-noclick-resp&quot;>&lt;em>Charles de Gaulle&lt;/em>&lt;/a> and the American nuclear-powered carrier &lt;a href=&quot;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Enterprise_(CVN-65)&quot; rel=&quot;nofollow noopener&quot; target=&quot;_blank&quot; data-ylk=&quot;slk:USS Enterprise&quot; class=&quot;link rapid-noclick-resp&quot;>USS &lt;em>Enterprise&lt;/em>&lt;/a> (left), each of which carry nuclear-capable &lt;a href=&quot;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fighter_aircraft&quot; rel=&quot;nofollow noopener&quot; target=&quot;_blank&quot; data-ylk=&quot;slk:fighter aircraft&quot; class=&quot;link rapid-noclick-resp&quot;>fighter aircraft&lt;/a>” src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/cIFGLSyDrrghBRMYRupoIQ–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTQyMA–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/SToVALIsrgaWt2hNoysdeA–~B/aD00MjA7dz02NDA7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/52a31750-ec11-11e9-9fb5-694d1adc05a2&#8243; class=”caas-img”>

France:

France has 300 nuclear weapons, with around 290 operational and 10 spares. The country first tested an independently developed weapon in 1960, under the Charles de Gaulle government. Under the Jacques Chirac government’s nuclear plans for the years 1997-2002, France saw the dismantling of many weapons systems. The country has also deactivated all land based nuclear missiles. France, however, maintains a first use policy where it says that it will use nuclear weapons against either nuclear or non-nuclear states only in the case of invasion or other attack against their territory or against one of their allies. Image: The French nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle and the American nuclear-powered carrier USS Enterprise (left), each of which carry nuclear-capable fighter aircraft

<img alt=”In a speech in 1957, Chairman Mao was quoted to have said the following terrifying words – &quot;I’m not afraid of nuclear war. There are 2.7 billion people in the world; it doesn’t matter if some are killed. China has a population of 600 million; even if half of them are killed, there are still 300 million people left. I’m not afraid of anyone.” Thankfully, such a nuclear war has not taken place as the country has snown more restraint. China, which is a legally recognised nuclear state, currently has 280 nuclear warheads. The country developed nuclear weapons as a deterrent against the United States and former Soviet Union and tested its first nuclear device in 1964 at the Lop Nur test site. China went on to test more weapons at the site, after which it issued a moratorium on nuclear testing. Over the years, the country has shown a more restrained attitude towards developing its nuclear arsenal. However, during its recent 70th anniversary celebration, China showcased its new nuclear arsenal, which included an inter-ballistic missile capable of reaching US in 30 minutes and a hypersonic ballistic nuclear missile which is believed to breach all existing anti-missile shields deployed by the United States and its allies. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> A mockup of China’s first nuclear bomb.” src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/gp1kK1Ib6H.hqth5F9klAw–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTc2Mi4yODI4Nzg0MTE5MTA3/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/SY38HygyNIzkPETD9r8VYA–~B/aD00ODA7dz00MDM7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/badc9c10-ec11-11e9-99fe-eae3cef604e2&#8243; class=”caas-img”>

China:

In a speech in 1957, Chairman Mao was quoted to have said the following terrifying words – “I’m not afraid of nuclear war. There are 2.7 billion people in the world; it doesn’t matter if some are killed. China has a population of 600 million; even if half of them are killed, there are still 300 million people left. I’m not afraid of anyone.” Thankfully, such a nuclear war has not taken place as the country has snown more restraint. China, which is a legally recognised nuclear state, currently has 280 nuclear warheads. The country developed nuclear weapons as a deterrent against the United States and former Soviet Union and tested its first nuclear device in 1964 at the Lop Nur test site. China went on to test more weapons at the site, after which it issued a moratorium on nuclear testing. Over the years, the country has shown a more restrained attitude towards developing its nuclear arsenal. However, during its recent 70th anniversary celebration, China showcased its new nuclear arsenal, which included an inter-ballistic missile capable of reaching US in 30 minutes and a hypersonic ballistic nuclear missile which is believed to breach all existing anti-missile shields deployed by the United States and its allies. Image: A mockup of China’s first nuclear bomb.

<img alt=”While the details of Israel’s nuclear capacity is a tightly held state secret, estimates put the size of the country’s nuclear warheads at anything between 80 and 300. Israel’s main reginal enemies are states such as Iran, Syria and Iraq, all of which are non-nuclear. The country has also not conducted any nuclear tests so far, but is said to have acquired nuclear weapons since 1966. The SIPRI estimates that Israel has approximately 80 intact nuclear weapons, of which 50 are for delivery by Jericho II medium-range ballistic missiles and 30 are gravity bombs for delivery by aircraft. There was further speculation in 2012, as per SIPRI that Israel may also have developed nuclear-capable submarine-launched cruise missiles. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> Completed Dimona complex as seen by US Corona satellite on November 11, 1968″ src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/1hicdHszb7L2aKd.3FBQgw–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTQ4MA–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/9r4Xtd4YOtyQTzq4uzkuAQ–~B/aD00ODA7dz02NDA7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/6d0b0d60-ec15-11e9-b9cf-d3ab2e8f147b&#8221; class=”caas-img”>

Israel:

While the details of Israel’s nuclear capacity is a tightly held state secret, estimates put the size of the country’s nuclear warheads at anything between 80 and 300. Israel’s main reginal enemies are states such as Iran, Syria and Iraq, all of which are non-nuclear. The country has also not conducted any nuclear tests so far, but is said to have acquired nuclear weapons since 1966. The SIPRI estimates that Israel has approximately 80 intact nuclear weapons, of which 50 are for delivery by Jericho II medium-range ballistic missiles and 30 are gravity bombs for delivery by aircraft. There was further speculation in 2012, as per SIPRI that Israel may also have developed nuclear-capable submarine-launched cruise missiles. Image: Completed Dimona complex as seen by US Corona satellite on November 11, 1968

<img alt=”India, which is not a signitory of the NPT, or the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), first tested its nuclear weapons in a ‘peaceful nuclear explosion’ in 1974. In 1998, India tested its weaponised nuclear warheads, when it conducted the Pokhran-II tests – a series of five nuclear bomb test explosions. Initially, the country’s nuclear programme was conceived to boost the production of inexpensive electricity, however, India gradually moved to a complete nuclear fuel cycle which also allowed the country to pursue nuclear weapons. Currently, India has around 130-140 nuclear warheads and has been modernising its nuclear arsenal. According to a study published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, India has at least five new weapon systems under development to complement or replace existing nuclear-capable aircraft, land-based delivery systems, and sea-based systems. India has also moved on from a solely Pakistan-based nuclear strategy to include China as well. While the country’s military facilities remain off limits to international scrutiny, India has allowed safeguards in certain facilities that have been developed for civilian purposes. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> The Mirage 2000 of the Indian Air Force is believed to be assigned the nuclear strike role, operating from Maharajpur Air Force Station.” src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/iJ6fugMqcJPtU1DIzF4FRg–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTQyMA–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/fSjQ5UAOvw60OXTm1ny7dw–~B/aD00MjA7dz02NDA7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/ebc21750-ec08-11e9-a5d7-49d8ef7b7d7a&#8221; class=”caas-img”>

India:

India, which is not a signitory of the NPT, or the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), first tested its nuclear weapons in a ‘peaceful nuclear explosion’ in 1974. In 1998, India tested its weaponised nuclear warheads, when it conducted the Pokhran-II tests – a series of five nuclear bomb test explosions. Initially, the country’s nuclear programme was conceived to boost the production of inexpensive electricity, however, India gradually moved to a complete nuclear fuel cycle which also allowed the country to pursue nuclear weapons. Currently, India has around 130-140 nuclear warheads and has been modernising its nuclear arsenal. According to a study published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, India has at least five new weapon systems under development to complement or replace existing nuclear-capable aircraft, land-based delivery systems, and sea-based systems. India has also moved on from a solely Pakistan-based nuclear strategy to include China as well. While the country’s military facilities remain off limits to international scrutiny, India has allowed safeguards in certain facilities that have been developed for civilian purposes. Image: The Mirage 2000 of the Indian Air Force is believed to be assigned the nuclear strike role, operating from Maharajpur Air Force Station.

<img alt=”Former Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had once said, “If India builds the bomb, we will eat grass or leaves, even go hungry, but we will get one of our own.” From the initial stages of the country’s nuclear programme in the 1950s to the current tense situation with India, Pakistan has been piling and evolving its nuclear doctrine and weapons, primarily keeping India in mind. In May 1998, after India successfully conducted its second nuclear test, Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Chagai district in Balochistan. Pakistan is trying to build its nuclear triade – its nuclear arsenal includes ballistic missiles, nuclear tipped cruise missiles that can reach 400 miles, while it is believed to have modified its American built F-16 fighters to deliver nuclear bombs. Pakistan also has the Babur class of cruise missiles for the sea, which can be launched at both land and sea, while a submarine-launched version, Babur 3, was tested in 2018. Though it never joined the NPT and is not a legally recognised nuclear state, the country has a stockpile of 160 nuclear weapons. The main concern that experts have about the country’s nuclear programme is that not enough is being done by Islamabad to secure it. While the country’s nuclear arsenal is kept under the military’s Strategic Plans Division, stored in Punjab Province, with tens of thousands of personnel guarding it, worries of it reaching rogue hands remain. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> A truck-mounted launch system (TEL) armed with 4 Babur cruise missiles on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan. By SyedNaqvi90 at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31334793&#8243; src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/m0hrUwgyyHiZGFV1nOUU3Q–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTQ4MA–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/Nc54GF8vMoqsjWCU9eqkig–~B/aD00ODA7dz02NDA7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/e6384820-ec14-11e9-94cd-6646f685e2b4&#8243; class=”caas-img”>

Pakistan:

Former Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had once said, “If India builds the bomb, we will eat grass or leaves, even go hungry, but we will get one of our own.” From the initial stages of the country’s nuclear programme in the 1950s to the current tense situation with India, Pakistan has been piling and evolving its nuclear doctrine and weapons, primarily keeping India in mind. In May 1998, after India successfully conducted its second nuclear test, Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Chagai district in Balochistan. Pakistan is trying to build its nuclear triade – its nuclear arsenal includes ballistic missiles, nuclear tipped cruise missiles that can reach 400 miles, while it is believed to have modified its American built F-16 fighters to deliver nuclear bombs. Pakistan also has the Babur class of cruise missiles for the sea, which can be launched at both land and sea, while a submarine-launched version, Babur 3, was tested in 2018. Though it never joined the NPT and is not a legally recognised nuclear state, the country has a stockpile of 160 nuclear weapons. The main concern that experts have about the country’s nuclear programme is that not enough is being done by Islamabad to secure it. While the country’s nuclear arsenal is kept under the military’s Strategic Plans Division, stored in Punjab Province, with tens of thousands of personnel guarding it, worries of it reaching rogue hands remain. Image: A truck-mounted launch system (TEL) armed with 4 Babur cruise missiles on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan. By SyedNaqvi90 at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31334793

<img alt=”North Korea is the only country to have tested its nuclear weapon in the 21st century, first testing its weapons in 2006. After being a part of the NPT, North Korea announced its decision to withdraw in 2003, after the United States accused it of having a secret uranium enrichment programme. In 2018, Pyongyang had announced that it would halt nuclear weapons tests and had made a commitment to denuclearise, however, with talks with the United States hitting a block, North Korea is once again eyeing nuclear weapons development, as per the North Korean foreign ministry. As per the Arms Control Association, North Korea is estimated to have 20-30 war heads and fissile material for 30-60 nuclear weapons. The country with the rogue state status has been criticised for diverting funds from essential services into developing the country’s nuclear programme. &lt;em>&lt;strong>Image:&lt;/strong>&lt;/em> North Korea’s ballistic missile. By Stefan Krasowski – https://www.flickr.com/photos/rapidtravelchai/9465934852/, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=58241477&#8243; src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/RJqweX3o9jPzzhWlZUni8A–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTY0MDtoPTQ4MA–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/bCmz_zJBHfZqe8Yz0IdD8A–~B/aD00ODA7dz02NDA7c209MTthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media-mbst-pub-ue1.s3.amazonaws.com/creatr-uploaded-images/2019-10/b4219980-ec15-11e9-9ffe-7d83d6f6e028&#8243; class=”caas-img”>

North Korea:

North Korea is the only country to have tested its nuclear weapon in the 21st century, first testing its weapons in 2006. After being a part of the NPT, North Korea announced its decision to withdraw in 2003, after the United States accused it of having a secret uranium enrichment programme. In 2018, Pyongyang had announced that it would halt nuclear weapons tests and had made a commitment to denuclearise, however, with talks with the United States hitting a block, North Korea is once again eyeing nuclear weapons development, as per the North Korean foreign ministry. As per the Arms Control Association, North Korea is estimated to have 20-30 war heads and fissile material for 30-60 nuclear weapons. The country with the rogue state status has been criticised for diverting funds from essential services into developing the country’s nuclear programme. Image: North Korea’s ballistic missile. By Stefan Krasowski – https://www.flickr.com/photos/rapidtravelchai/9465934852/, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=58241477

Russia’s New Doomsday Nuke (Revelation 16)

Russia’s New Nuclear Weapon Is A Real Doomsday Device (And Aimed At America)

Key point: The next phase of mutually assured destruction.

On May 22, 2018, the Russian submarine Yuri Dolgoruky slipped beneath the waves of the Arctic White Sea. Hatches along the submerged boat’s spine opened, flooding the capacious tubes beneath. Moments later, an undersea volcano seemingly erupted from the depths.

Amidst roiling smoke, four stubby-looking missiles measuring twelve-meters in length emerged one by one. Momentarily, they seemed on the verge of faltering backward into the sea before their solid-fuel rockets ignited, propelling them high into the stratosphere. The four missiles soared across Russia to land in a missile test range on the Kamchatka peninsula, roughly 3,500 miles away.

Like the nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) operated by United States, China, France, the United Kingdom, and India, the primary purpose of Borei-class submarines is almost unimaginably grim: to bring ruin to an adversary’s cities, even should other nuclear forces be wiped out in a first strike. 

Each of the submarine’s sixteen R-30 Bulava (“Mace”) missiles typically carries six 150-kiloton nuclear warheads designed to split apart to hit separate targets. This means one Borei can rain seventy-two nuclear warheads ten times more destructive than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima on cities and military bases over 5,800 miles away.

The Borei is the most advanced SSBN in the Russian Navy, and is designed to replace its seven Soviet-era Delta-class SSBNs. Throughout most of the Cold War, Soviets submarines were noisier than their Western counterparts, and thus vulnerable to detection and attack by Western attack submarines.

This problem was finally appreciated by the 1980s, when the Soviets managed to import technologies from Japan and Norway to create the Akula-class attack submarine, which finally matched the U.S. Navy’s workhorse Los Angeles-class attack submarines in acoustic stealth.

Concept work on the Project 955 Borei began during the 1980s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, in 1996 cash-strapped Russia decided to lower costs by taking three incomplete Akula hulls and convert them into a revised Borei design.

Construction proceeded at Severodvinsk, and lead ship Yury Dolgoruky (named after the Russian prince who founded the city of Moscow) launched in 2008 and was commissioned five years later in January 2013.

An SSBN’s primary purpose is to remain undetected long enough to unleash its terrifying firepower—a strategy made easier thanks to their nuclear reactors allowing them remain submerged for months at a time. Towards that end, the Borei is designed to higher standards of acoustic stealth than Soviet-era designs, and is more capable of evading enemies that do get an inkling of its position.

The Borei’s sleek 170-meter-long hull is considered more typical of Western-style submarine engineering, than the boxier Delta-class. Both the hull and the machinery inside the gargantuan 24,000-ton (submerged) submarine are coated in sound-dampening rubber.

The Borei’s OKF-650B 190-megawatt reactor powers a pump-jet propulsion system that allows it to remain unusually quiet while cruising near its maximum underwater speed of thirty knots. This probably makes the Borei quieter, and able to remain discrete at higher speeds, than the propeller-driven Ohio-class submarine. Russian media claims its acoustic signature is one-fifth that of the Typhoon and Delta-IV class SSBN and that the Borei was also uniquely suited to perform nuclear deterrence patrols in the southern hemisphere, though Russian SSBNs have historically remained close to friendly waters for protection.

For defense against enemy ships and submarines, the Borei also has eight 533-millimeter torpedo tubes and six countermeasure launchers atop its bow. Should things go terribly wrong for the relatively small crew of 107, the Russian SSBN has a pop-out escape pod on its back.

Troubled Missiles

The Borei was originally intended to carry twelve larger and more advanced R-39 “Bark” submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM). But the R-39 was canceled in 1998 after failing in three test launches.

Thus, the Borei had to be redesigned to carry sixteen smaller Bulava missiles derived from the land-based Topol-M intercontinental ballistic missile. The Bulava also proved very troubled, however, failing in ten out of twenty-seven test launches due to manufacturing defects. Two failures occurred after the Bulava was operationally deployed on the Borei in 2013.

The Bulava has an unusually shallow flight trajectory, making it harder to intercept, and can be fired while the Borei is moving. The 40-ton missiles can deploy up to forty decoys to try to divert defensive missiles fire by anti-ballistic missiles systems like the Alaska-based Ground-based Midcourse Defense system.

However, publicized specifications imply the R-30 may be nearly four times less accurate than the Trident D5 SLBMs on U.S. and British submarines, with only half of shots landing within 350 meters of a target. This implies the R-30 is a purely strategic weapon lacking the precision to reliably take out hardened military targets like nuclear silos in a first-strike scenario.

The New Generation Borei-A

Of the three active Boreis, the Yuri Dologoruky is based at Ghadzhievo (near Murmansk) assigned to the Northern Fleet, while the Alexander Nevsky and the Vladimir Monomakh are part of the Pacific Fleet, based at Vilyuchinsk on the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Between 2012 and 2016, the Severomash shipyard laid down five new generation Project 955A Borei-II/Borei-A submarines. Lead boat Knyaz Vladimir (Prince Vladimir) launched in 2017 and is due to be commissioned in 2019.

While retaining the same basic tear-drop profile, Knyaz Vladimir appears to be six meters longer based on satellite photos. The 955’s distinctive forward-slanted sail (conning tower) has been replaced with a more conventional tapered design in the 955A. As you can see in this diagram, 955A’s tail has a larger pump jet, an all-moving rudder and new end plates to its horizontal fins for improved maneuverability. A new long blister on the lower hull may house an improved flank-array sonar, or serve as a stowage hangar. You can see detailed imagery, deck plans and analysis of the Borei-A at the website Covert Shores.

Other upgrades include modernized combat, sensor and communications systems, improved acoustic stealth and crew habitability. One Russian source claims the new model is optimized “to decrease launch time to the minimum.”

All five Boreis-A are due to be commissioned by 2021, though Russian shipbuilding frequently falls behind schedule. Nonetheless, given the Russian Navy has had to cancel, downsize or downgrade numerous projects in the last few years, the money invested in completing the subs testifies to the importance Moscow places on submarine nuclear deterrence. The boats cost slightly less than half the cost of their American Ohio-class counterparts at $890 million, but Moscow’s defense budget is only one-twelfth that of the United States.

The eight Boreis would maintain, but not expand, on a standing force of eight Russian SSBNs evenly split between the Pacific and Northern fleets—enough for multiple submarines to perform deterrence patrols at the same time.

Russian media has variously indicated two or six more Boreis could be built in the mid to late 2020s, for a total of ten to fourteen Boreis of both types. Two of these could potentially be a cruise-missile-carrying Borei-K variant that would parallel the U.S. Navy’s Ohio-class SSGN cruise missile submarines.

However, the Borei represents only half of the Russian Navy’s future sea-based nuclear deterrence force. The other half will come from a unique fleet of four Khaborovsk-class submarines each carrying six nuclear-powered Poseidon drone-torpedoes designed to swim across oceanic distances to blast coastal cities and naval bases with megaton-yield warheads. Moscow, it seems, would like a little more redundancy in its ability to end civilization as we know it in the event of a nuclear conflict.

Sébastien Roblin holds a master’s degree in conflict resolution from Georgetown University and served as a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in education, editing, and refugee resettlement in France and the United States. He currently writes on security and military history for War Is Boring. This first appeared in June 2019 and is being republished due to reader interest.

Image: Reuters.

Babylon the Great Sends Troops to Saudi Arabia

More troops to Middle East© Department of Defense More troops to Middle East The move to bolster troops in the Middle East comes as President Donald Trump’s decision to pull back US military forces from northeastern Syria has prompted bipartisan criticism from lawmakers who say the President has given Turkey an opening to attack US Kurdish allies who helped in the fight against ISIS.

And it follows a Thursday tweet from Trump decrying US involvement in the Middle East, in which he said that “going into the Middle East is the worst decision ever made!” He added that “we are slowly and carefully bringing our great soldiers & military home.”

The Pentagon said Friday that the deployment to Saudi Arabia will include two fighter squadrons, one air expeditionary wing, two Patriot batteries and one Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system. Defense Department officials said they had sent 200 troops in September and 1,000 troops earlier in October, plus an additional 1,800 being sent Friday. Initially, officials had said “about 1,500” troops would be sent before clarifying with the higher number.

Enhancing defenses

“Secretary Esper informed Saudi Crown Prince and Minister of Defense Muhammad bin Salman this morning of the additional troop deployment to assure and enhance the defense of Saudi Arabia,” Chief Pentagon spokesman Jonathon Hoffman said in a statement Friday. “Taken together with other deployments, this constitutes an additional 3,000 forces that have been extended or authorized within the last month.”

The US has increased the deployment of forces in the region by 14,000 since May.

The carrier USS Harry S Truman, which was scheduled to deploy to the region in the last several weeks, has been unable to sail due to a broken electrical distribution system. The current carrier in the region, USS Abraham Lincoln, is rescheduled to end its deployment in the next several days.

That has now led to the need for additional capability in the region to replace what a carrier airwing can provide.

Additional aircraft are on standby and some warships may move from the Pacific into the Middle East, officials told CNN.

The request for the forces had been in place for the past several weeks, the officials said.

Gen. Frank McKenzie, head of US Central Command, had long wanted additional air, ground and maritime forces, especially after a devastating September attack on Saudi oil facilities that the US has attributed to Iran.

McKenzie this week again pressed the case that more military force was needed, officials say.

When the Pentagon announced additional deployments after the Saudi attack, Defense Secretary Mark Esper told reporters that the US troops would be “defensive in nature and primarily focused on air and missile defense.”

Iran has denied responsibility for the coordinated strikes on the Saudi facility that disrupted 5% of the daily global oil supply and caused another spike in tensions between the US and Tehran

After Trump’s Sunday announcement that US troops would pull back in northeastern Syria, Turkey began a planned military offensive into the region on Wednesday, launching airstrikes and artillery fire to try and push Kurdish forces away from Turkey’s border.

Trump on Wednesday downplayed the US alliance with the Kurds, who played a key strategic role in the fight against the terrorist group ISIS, saying “they didn’t help us in the second World War.”

The President had announced in December that he would withdraw all US troops from Syria, which sparked outrage. including from his own party, and led to the resignation of then-Defense Secretary James Mattis.

Trump then later agreed to allowing a small residual US presence in the region to ensure stability and continue fighting the remnants of ISIS.

How Iran is Shaping the Shi’a Horn

For Iran, Iraq’s unrest is plot to undo bilateral ties

Tehran has close but complicated relations with Baghdad, holding significant clout among its Shiite political groups.

The two countries fought a devastating war from 1980 to 1988 and Iran’s influence in Iraq grew after the US-led invasion toppled longtime dictator Saddam Hussein in 2003.

Clashes that broke out in Iraq last week between protesters and security forces have claimed more than 100 lives, and wounded over 6,000 — most of them demonstrators struck by bullets.

The rallies began on Tuesday with calls to reduce corruption and unemployment but have spiralled into demands for the fall of the government and overhaul of the political system.

A string of Iranian officials have since come out with statements accusing their country’s arch-foes of being behind the unrest.

“Enemies seek to sow discord but they’ve failed & their conspiracy won’t be effective,” supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said, quoted on his office’s Twitter account.

“Iran and #Iraq are two nations whose hearts & souls are tied together… This bond will grow stronger day by day,” he added.

State news agency IRNA said the supreme leader was reacting to the violence in Iraq.

The official news agency weighed in with its own commentary, accusing the US, Saudi Arabia and Israel of stirring the Iraqi protests in order to spoil Iran’s ties with Iraq and Syria.

“Unprecedented protests in Iraqi cities… show that some forces inside and outside of the region are seriously concerned about the closeness and cooperation” of Baghdad, Tehran and Damascus, it added.

‘Arrows and stones’

Iran’s government spokesman Ali Rabiei opened his weekly news conference on Monday with a statement on the Iraqi crisis.

He said there “are ill-wishers who seek to sabotage any opening between us and those neighbours who’ve had differences of opinions in recent years”.

The spokesman called on “the great people of Iraq to show more self-restraint and seek democratic and legal means to reach their demands.

“As always, the Islamic Republic of Iran expresses its readiness to stand beside Iraqi brothers and sisters and help them.

“No form of propaganda can sever the people of Iran and Iraq.”

Iran has accused its foes of deliberately stirring trouble in Iraq at a time when vast numbers of pilgrims are heading there for one of the world’s largest religious events.

A top military adviser to Khamenei said those behind the unrest would be unable to deter the faithful, however.

“They want to scare people into not going to Arbaeen, but even if it rains arrows and stones, Hussein’s lovers will not be afraid,” Major General Yahya Rahim Safavi was quoted as saying by Tasnim news agency.

Arbaeen marks the end of the 40-day mourning period for the seventh-century killing of Imam Hussein by the forces of the Caliph Yazid.

Last week, Iran urged citizens who were planning to head to Iraq to delay their travel for the pilgrimage that culminates on October 17 with the Arbaeen commemoration.

On Monday, Iran reopened the Khosravi border crossing with Iraq following its closure last week as the protests raged.

IRNA said the fact that the “provocations” came ahead of Arbaeen showed Iran’s enemies were “scared”.

‘Hidden hands’

Judiciary chief Ebrahim Raisi said those responsible for the unrest in Iraq aimed to undermine Arbaeen.

“The seditionists intend to undermine and sap enthusiasm for this great event,” he said, quoted by state television’s website.

“The vigilant people of Iraq exposed this sedition. But everyone must be careful. The seditionists are seeking new tricks at any moment to overshadow the Arbaeen ceremony and to undermine it.”

The hardline Keyhan newspaper said “evidence” pointed to the Americans, Saudis and Israelis being involved.

A columnist in the reformist Shargh daily also suggested the Americans, Israelis and Saudis might be the “hidden hands” behind the Iraqi protests.

“Even if that is not the case, the chaotic and tense situation in Iraq today can prepare the grounds for these actors to ride the wave to fulfil their objectives and demands,” wrote Abdelrahman Fathollahi.

More Palestinians Wounded Outside the Temple Walls (Revelation 11)

A Palestinian demonstrator reacts as others take cover from Israeli gunfire and tear gas during a protest marking Land Day and the first anniversary of a surge of border protests, at the Israel-Gaza border fence east of Gaza City March 30, 2019. (photo credit: MOHAMMED SALEM/ REUTERS)

MARCH OF RETURN PROTEST LEAVES 49 PALESTINIAN WOUNDED

By JERUSALEM POST STAFF

After roughly a year and a half of weekly protests, some residents of the Gaza Strip question Hamas’s policy of leading ‘March of Return’ protests.

The latest of the weekly ‘March of Return’ protests along the Gaza border left 49 Palestinians injured on Friday, 21 of them allegedly from IDF gunfire, the Gaza Ministry of Health reported.

IDF forces, using tear gas and riot dispersal gear, contained the roughly 4,000 protesters, some of whom were spotted throwing IEDs toward the security fence. Several protesters were seen crossing the fence north of the Gaza Strip and running back to the Palestinian side, Walla News reported.

Roughly 18,000 have been wounded and 211 killed in the Hamas-led March of Return protests during the past 18 months, leading some to question their effectiveness.

Over the past several months, a group of Palestinian activists has been leading non-violent protests every second Wednesday in which people sing traditional Palestinian songs and perform traditional dances. These social events, reported by Haaretz as well as AP, attempt to educate children born in Gaza about the greater Palestinian identity and heritage – without any bloodshed or violence.

Hamas stated that the focus of the Friday protests is “child martyrs.”

UN Humanitarian Coordinator Jamie McGoldrick responded, saying that boys and girls must never be “encouraged to participate in violence.”

 

The End is a Religion Thing

‘It Goes by Religion’: Pakistani Army Spokesperson Defends Rajnath Singh Over Rafale ‘Shastra Puja’ Row

Performing the ritual, Rajnath Singh etched an ‘Om’ on the Rafale jet, adorned it with flowers and laid a coconut and lemons to ward off the evil eye. His actions have drawn strong criticism on social media as well as from the Opposition.

File photo of Pakistan army spokesperson Major General Asif Ghafoor (Image)

Breaking the habit of making indefatigable attacks against the Indian government, Pakistan army spokesperson Asif Ghafoor on Thursday came to the defence of union minister Rajnath Singh who has been under fire for performing ‘Shastra Puja’ after receiving the first Rafale jet in France and said that nothing is wrong in Rafale Puja ‘as it goes by the religion’.

Ghafoor in a tweet on Thursday said, “Nothing wrong in #RafalePuja as it goes by the religion and that must be respected. Please, remember….it’s not the machine alone which matters but competence, passion & resolve of the men handling that machine. Proud of our PAF Shaheens.”

His remarks also come at a time when tensions between the two nuclear-armed nations have peaked since August 5, when India downgraded the autonomy Jammu and Kashmir, downsizing it into two union territories and virtually imposed a communications blackout in the region.

Singh on October 8, received the first of the 36 French-built Rafale fighter jet in the French port city of Bordeaux and performed ‘Shastra Puja’ (worship of weapons) ahead of taking a sortie on the jet on the auspicious occasion of Vijayadashami.

Performing the ritual, he etched an ‘Om’ on the aircraft, adorned it with flowers and laid a coconut and lemons to ward off the evil eye. His actions have drawn strong criticism on social media as well as from the Opposition.

Senior leader Mallikarjun Kharge described Singh performing Shashtra Puja as “tamasha”. Congress leader Udit Raj also raised objections saying the day “superstition” ends in India, the country will start making its own fighter jets. Several leaders including Nationalist Congress Party chief Sharad Pawar had hit out saying it had been akin to a puja performed for a new truck.

However, Singh on Thursday hit back and said, “People can say whatever they want. I did what I thought was right and I will continue to do so. This is our faith, that there is a superpower and I have believed it since childhood.”

According to Defence Minister, the France visit had been a success and he had also held a 35-minute meeting with French President Emmanuel Macron.

“After induction of Rafale fighter aircraft, the combat capability of the Indian Air Force will increase. We don’t want to intimidate anyone by doing so. We will neither fear anyone nor will we intimidate,” ANI quoted the Defence Minister as saying.