The Sixth Seal Will Be On The East (Revelation 6:12)

New Evidence Shows Power of East Coast Earthquake

Virginia Earthquake Triggered Landslides at Great Distances

Released: 11/6/2012 8:30:00 AM

“We used landslides as an example and direct physical evidence to see how far-reaching shaking from east coast earthquakes could be,” said Randall Jibson, USGS scientist and lead author of this study. “Not every earthquake will trigger landslides, but we can use landslide distributions to estimate characteristics of earthquake energy and how far regional ground shaking could occur.”

“Scientists are confirming with empirical data what more than 50 million people in the eastern U.S. experienced firsthand: this was one powerful earthquake,” said USGS Director Marcia McNutt. “Calibrating the distance over which landslides occur may also help us reach back into the geologic record to look for evidence of past history of major earthquakes from the Virginia seismic zone.”

This study will help inform earthquake hazard and risk assessments as well as emergency preparedness, whether for landslides or other earthquake effects.

The research is being presented today at the Geological Society of America conference, and will be published in the December 2012 issue of the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.

The USGS found that the farthest landslide from the 2011 Virginia earthquake was 245 km (150 miles) from the epicenter. This is by far the greatest landslide distance recorded from any other earthquake of similar magnitude. Previous studies of worldwide earthquakes indicated that landslides occurred no farther than 60 km (36 miles) from the epicenter of a magnitude 5.8 earthquake.

“What makes this new study so unique is that it provides direct observational evidence from the largest earthquake to occur in more than 100 years in the eastern U.S,” said Jibson. “Now that we know more about the power of East Coast earthquakes, equations that predict ground shaking might need to be revised.”

It is estimated that approximately one-third of the U.S. population could have felt last year’s earthquake in Virginia, more than any earthquake in U.S. history. About 148,000 people reported their ground-shaking experiences caused by the earthquake on the USGS “Did You Feel It?” website. Shaking reports came from southeastern Canada to Florida and as far west as Texas.

In addition to the great landslide distances recorded, the landslides from the 2011 Virginia earthquake occurred in an area 20 times larger than expected from studies of worldwide earthquakes. Scientists plotted the landslide locations that were farthest out and then calculated the area enclosed by those landslides. The observed landslides from last year’s Virginia earthquake enclose an area of about 33,400 km2, while previous studies indicated an expected area of about 1,500 km2 from an earthquake of similar magnitude.

“The landslide distances from last year’s Virginia earthquake are remarkable compared to historical landslides across the world and represent the largest distance limit ever recorded,” said Edwin Harp, USGS scientist and co-author of this study. “There are limitations to our research, but the bottom line is that we now have a better understanding of the power of East Coast earthquakes and potential damage scenarios.”

Learn more about the 2011 central Virginia earthquake.

Israeli Fnorces Kill Palestinian Protester Outside the Temple Walls (Revelation 11)

Relatives of a Palestinian who was killed by Israeli forces mourn at the hospital in northern Gaza [Mohammed Salem/Reuters]

Israeli forces kill Palestinian protester in Gaza, wound dozens

Health ministry says 28-year-old Palestinian killed and 54 others wounded by Israeli forces during weekly protests.

Israeli forces have killed a Palestinian protester and wounded at least 54 others in the Gaza Strip, according to health officials in the besieged enclave.

Alaa Nizar Hamdan, 28, was shot in the chest by Israeli soldiers in Jabalia, northern Gaza, Ashraf al-Qedra, spokesperson for the health ministry in Gaza said on Friday.

Among the injured, 22 were shot with live bullets, he added.

Thousands of Palestinians gathered near the perimeter fence to participate in the Great March of Return, a series of weekly protests that began in March 2018.

The Israeli army did not comment on the specific incident but told the AFP news agency that around 5,800 of Palestinian “rioters and demonstrators” had gathered in multiple locations along the fence, with some throwing stones and explosive devices towards soldiers.

There were no reports of injured soldiers.

Since the Gaza rallies began, 313 Palestinian protesters have been killed by Israeli fire and thousands more wounded, according to the health ministry.

Eight Israelis have been killed in Gaza-related violence over the same period.

Demonstrators demand an end to Israel’s 12-year-old blockade of the Gaza Strip, which has shattered the coastal enclave’s economy and deprived its two million inhabitants of free movement in and out from Gaza and prevented many basic amenities.

Palestinians have also been demanding the right to return to lands in historic Palestine from which their families were violently expelled during the founding of Israel in 1948.

Israel says any such return would mean an end to the Jewish state and accuses Hamas, the Palestinian group that governs Gaza of orchestrating the protests.

Antichrist Muqtada al Sadr Suspends Parliament Activities

Iraqi cleric Muqtada al Sadr suspends parliament activities

The latest on developments in Iraq, amid deadly violence over anti-government protests (all times local):


3:45 p.m. An influential Iraqi Shia cleric whose political coalition came in first in last year’s national elections says he’s suspending participation in parliament activities until the government introduces a programme that serves Iraqi aspirations. Muqtada al-Sadr has asked members of his parliament bloc to boycott sessions until the government issues a programme acceptable to the people. Al-Sadr’s Sairoon electoral list won the largest single bloc of seats in parliament elections last year. The bloc has 54 seats in the 329-member parliament. The move comes after Iraq’s top Shia authority, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, blamed lawmakers for failing to enact reforms and eradicate corruption.

3:30 p.m. Three Gulf Arab nations have advised their citizens to avoid traveling to Iraq and those who are there to leave the country immediately. Friday’s call by Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain comes after three days of protests in Iraq that have left 42 people dead. The Kuwaiti news agency Kuna cited a Foreign Ministry official as urging Kuwaiti nationals to avoid traveling to Iraq due to the demonstrations and for those already there to leave as soon as possible and to avoid areas where protests are held. Qatar’s Foreign Ministry issued a similar request. Bahrain’s Foreign Ministry also called on its country’s citizens not to travel to Iraq and urged those already in Iraq to “leave immediately”.

3:15 p.m. Iraqi security forces have again opened fire on protesters gathered in central Baghdad, wounding one person on the fourth day of violence amid anti-government rallies. The protesters were gathered in a street behind Tayaran Square on Friday, chanting slogans when security forces opened fire. A young man was shot in the leg. It was the first shooting after Iraq’s top Shia cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, earlier in the day called on both sides to cease violence, which has gripped Iraq since Tuesday. Many across Iraq’s predominantly Shia south had looked to the influential cleric for guidance.

1:15 p.m. Iraq’s most influential Shia cleric has called for an end to the violence gripping the country, urging both sides to pull back “before it is too late.” The comments by Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani were his first since anti-government protests began earlier this week. The violence has killed 42 people so far. He also criticised the government, as well as the leaders of the two biggest parliament blocs, saying they failed to fulfil their promises to the people. Al-Sistani called on political leaders to take “practical and clear steps” toward combatting corruption and on the government to “carry out its duty” to diminish people’s suffering. He reiterated his suggestion for a committee of technocrats tasked with making recommendations on fighting corruption, as a way out of the current crisis. Al-Sistani’s message was delivered on Friday by his representative Ahmed al-Safi in the Shia holy city of Karbala.

12:30 p.m. Iraqi officials are reporting nine more deaths in anti-government protests in a southern city, bringing this week’s overall death toll to 42. Hospital officials say the deaths occurred late Thursday in Nasiriyah, which has witnessed the most violence in the protests, with at least 25 people, including a policeman, killed. The city is about 320 kilometres southeast of Baghdad. The officials spoke to journalists on condition of anonymity in line with regulations. Since Tuesday, security forces have fired live rounds and tear gas every day to disperse protesters demanding job opportunities, improved services and an end to corruption. Iraq’s Prime Minister Adel Abdul-Mahdi who hails from Nasiriyah, has urged calm, saying he’s working to meet protesters legitimate demands but adding that there’s no magic solution for Iraq’s problems.

8:35 a.m. Iraq’s prime minister has addressed the nation over the turmoil gripping the country, calling on protesters to go home and saying their demands have been heard. Prime Minister Adel Abdul-Mahdi says that the security measures imposed in the wake of this week’s violence, including the temporary curfew, are “difficult choices” but are needed like “bitter medicine” that has to be swallowed. Iraqi security forces have imposed a round-the-clock curfew in Baghdad. Since Tuesday, they fired live rounds and tear gas every day to disperse anti-government protests, leaving 33 people dead and wounding hundreds. The prime minister’s speech was televised early on Friday. He told protesters their “legitimate” demands in countering corruption and providing jobs have been heard and that it’s “important to help the government perform its duty toward you.”    (AP)

US and Saudis Plan to Damage the Oil and the Wine (Revelation 6:6)

US Meets with Saudi Arabia over Iran Attack

03 October 2019

US naval forces’ commander met with the head of Saudi Arabia’s naval forces in Riyadh to talk about strengthening defences against Iranian threats

By Jubin Katiraie

US Central Command confirmed Tuesday that its naval forces’ commander met with the head of Saudi Arabia’s naval forces in visited Riyadh over the weekend to talk about strengthening defenses against Iranian threats.

Malloy said in a statement: “This visit was an opportunity to discuss our mutual efforts going forward to coordinate defense against provocation and attack.”

This comes after the September 14 drone and missile attack on two Saudi oil facilities, which initially halted about 5% of global supply.

The US, France, Britain, Germany, and Saudi Arabia have blamed Iran for the attack that Iran-backed Houthis in Yemen claimed responsibility for.

The US representative of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI) released detailed information about how the attack was ordered by Iran’s Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and carried out by the Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).

NCRI spokesperson Shahin Gobadi said: “It was a blatant act of war that Khamenei, [President Hassan] Rouhani, [Foreign Minister Javad] Zarif, and other regime heads were responsible for in deciding, approving, and implementing.”

The NCRI has a long history of providing the West with accurate intel on the Iranian Regime, like the clandestine nuclear program, and has a network of sources inside the regime and armed forces.

The report read: “These Intelligence reports indicate that the operation resulting in the attack involved the highest levels of the IRGC who directed it at every step. Ali Khamenei, supreme leader of the regime, directly ordered the commanders of the operation to conduct the attack, and the tactical command headquarters for the operation deployed from Tehran to Khuzestan province (southwest Iran) one week prior to the attack.”

The NCRI has called for the eviction of Iran and its proxy militias from Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Lebanon, and Afghanistan, as well as the placing of Khamenei, his offices, the IRGC and the Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS) on the terrorist watch list. They also want the UN Security Council to refer the Iranian authorities’ own dossier on human rights abuses and atrocities to an international court.

At the same time, several countries have joined the US in forming an international maritime coalition to protect commercial shipping in the Strait of Hormuz after attacks on several oil tankers earlier this year, which the US and Saudi Arabia blame on Iran.

In this mission, the US would supply coordinating ships and lead surveillance while others would patrol nearby waters and escort commercial vessels.

The First Nuclear War Will Trigger Starvation (Revelation 8 )

The mushroom cloud from the “Ivy Mike” nuclear test over Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands on November 1, 1952.

The mushroom cloud from the “Ivy Mike” nuclear test over Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands on November 1, 1952.
Image: Los Alamos National Laborator

In addition to killing as many as 125 million people, a nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan would unleash mass starvation around the world due to the ensuing climate impacts, according to a disturbing new study.

As if we need to be reminded of the horrors of nuclear war, new research published today in Science Advances presents evidence showing that a nuclear exchange between two minor powers, specifically India and Pakistan, would inflict both a regional and global catastrophe.

The new research, which involved researchers from the University of Colorado, Boulder, Rutgers University-New Brunswick, the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, among other institutions, offered some alarming estimates, showing that a war between the two nations would cause between 50 million and 125 million deaths in the hours and days following a nuclear exchange.

What the research also shows, however, is how the ensuing climate impacts, produced primarily by smoke from fires, would cause devastating crop failures and the collapse of vital ecosystems. This nuclear winter would go on to cause worldwide starvation, leading to “collateral fatalities,” in the words of the researchers.

No estimate was offered for how many people would be affected or killed by starvation, but it would likely be significant, given that the ensuing nuclear winter would last for at least a decade.

The new paper shows that a nuclear war, even one involving the smaller nuclear powers, would result in global consequences. The new paper is reminiscent of research done in 2017 showing that even “limited” nuclear strikes would cause climate chaos and a 2018 study seeking to determine the “best-case scenario” for nuclear war, that is, the fewest nukes required to maintain deterrence.

Alan Robock, a co-author of the new paper and researcher at the Department of Environmental Sciences at Rutgers University–New Brunswick, along with his colleagues, came to these results by simulating a scenario in which nuclear war erupted in 2025 between India and Pakistan. These nations are currently embroiled in a bitter dispute over the Kashmir territory.

“We evaluated the potential climate impacts of a war between India and Pakistan in the near future, with larger numbers of weapons, larger weapons, and larger targets, as compared to our analysis a decade ago,” wrote Robock in an email to Gizmodo. Indeed, the new paper is an update to similar research conducted in 2010 by Robock and Owen Toon, a professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Colorado at Boulder—research that largely reached the same conclusions.

In the imagined scenario, the researchers considered the use of between 400 to 500 nuclear weapons, which is the predicted arsenal for India and Pakistan in about six years. The nuclear weapons used in the simulation ranged from Hiroshima-sized bombs (15 kilotons of TNT) through to modern weapons capable of unleashing a few hundred kilotons of explosive power. The scenario saw India deploy 100 nuclear warheads while Pakistan deployed 150.

A “regional catastrophe would occur if India and Pakistan were to engage in a full-scale nuclear war with their expanding arsenals,” wrote the authors in the study. The simulated nuclear exchange would result in anywhere from 50 million to 125 million deaths, which would occur almost instantly from the immediate, direct effects of the bombs. As the researchers noted in the study:

India would suffer two to three times more fatalities and casualties than Pakistan because, in our scenario, Pakistan uses more weapons than India and because India has a much larger population and more densely populated cities. However, as a percentage of the urban population, Pakistan’s losses would be about twice those of India. In general…the fatalities and casualties increase rapidly even up to the 250th explosion due to the high population in India, whereas the rate of increase for Pakistan is much lower even for the 50th explosion.

For Robock, the biggest surprise of these findings was in how a “war between two new, ‘smaller’ nuclear powers on the other side of the world now has the potential to plunge Earth into an ice age climate,” he told Gizmodo. “It would be instant climate change.”

The U.S. and Russia currently account for around 93 percent of the planet’s estimated 13,900 nuclear weapons, according to the paper.

Fires caused by the nuclear exchange would deliver somewhere between 16 million and 36 million tons of soot—otherwise known as black carbon—into the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Within weeks, this soot would proliferate around the world. According to the researchers’ estimates, sunlight would diminish by a factor of 20 to 35 percent, which would in turn cool the ground by 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (3.6 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit) and reduce precipitation by 15 to 30 percent, depending on the region.

This would be very bad for the world’s vegetation, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Plant life would decline by 15 to 30 percent on land and 5 to 15 percent in the oceans. This nuclear winter would last for at least 10 years, according to the researchers. The paper summarizes as follows:

[S]evere short-term climate perturbations, with temperatures declining to values not seen on Earth since the middle of the last Ice Age, would be triggered by smoke from burning cities, a global disaster threatening food production worldwide and mass starvation, as well as severe disruption to natural ecosystems. Compounding the devastation brought upon their own countries, decisions by Indian and Pakistani military leaders and politicians to use nuclear weapons could severely affect every other nation on Earth.

As an interesting and relevant aside, the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN). As Robock explained to Gizmodo, ICAN “was enacted partly based on our previous results.” His hope is that the world’s nine nuclear nations will “sign and ratify the 2017 UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.”

The results of the new study “reinforce the need to abolish nuclear weapons,” said Robock. “They are instruments of mass genocide. And the myth of deterrence persists. But if nuclear weapons were used they would have a huge impact, through climate change, on the nation using them,” he said.

“Threatening to use nuclear weapons to deter is threatening to be a suicide bomber,” he added.

The TRIBULATION (Revelation 8 )

A Nuclear War Between India and Pakistan Could Kill Twice As Many People As WWII, Study Finds

By Rosie McCall On 10/2/19 at 2:00 PM EDT

The immediate effects of a nuclear war between India and Pakistan could cause up to 125 million deaths, a new study published in Science Advances has found. That’s 2.5 times the fatalities of the Second World War, when an estimated 50 million people were killed as a direct consequence of military action.

The study, co-authored by researchers at Rutgers University, quantifies just how catastrophic a nuclear conflict between the two nations would be. In addition to the 100 million-plus death toll in the immediate aftermath, the study authors warn we could expect global vegetation growth to decline 20 to 35 percent as ocean productivity fell 5 to 15 percent⁠—a result that would cause mass starvation, ecosystem disruption and more deaths. It could take over a decade to fully recover from the impacts, they say.

“Nine countries have nuclear weapons, but Pakistan and India are the only ones rapidly increasing their arsenals,” said Alan Robock, a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at Rutgers University—New Brunswick.

“Because of the continuing unrest between these two nuclear-armed countries, particularly over Kashmir, it is important to understand the consequences of a nuclear war.”

Indeed, only last week in an address to the United Nations General Assembly in New York, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan appealed for international support against India’s decision to remove semi-autonomous status from its share of Kashmir last month and impose a lockdown on the majority Muslim population—stressing the threat of nuclear war.

“If a conventional war starts between the two countries, anything could happen,” said Khan. “But supposing a country seven times smaller than its neighbor is faced with the choice: either you surrender, or you fight for your freedom till death, what will we do?”

“I ask myself this question and my belief is la ilaha illallah, there is no god but one, and we will fight. And when a nuclear-armed country fights to the end, it will consequence far beyond the borders.”

The largest nuclear warheads around today contain 3,333 the explosive power of ‘Little Boy’ (pictured), the bomb that fell on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 9, 1945. Seen here in an undated file photo released by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. AFP/Getty

Robock et al.’s calculations are based on a potential war scenario for 2025, when it is estimated the two countries could have 400 to 500 nuclear weapons between them. Each nuke could have an explosive power between 15 kilotons—equivalent to 15,000 tons of TNT, i.e. the same size as the “Little Boy” that fell on Hiroshima in 1945—and a few hundred kilotons, the researchers say. The largest known nuclear weapon in existence today, the Tsar Bomba, far exceeds those considered in the study with an explosive power of 50 megatons.

The researchers conclude that were India to release 100 strategic weapons in a nuclear conflict and Pakistan 150, the number of fatalities caused by the initial effects could total 50 million to 125 million people—the exact size depends on the size of the weapons used. For context, an estimated 50 million people were killed in the Second World War, although that number excludes those who died from disease and starvation. Many more would die from the mass starvation that would almost certainly follow, they add.

Starvation is likely because the explosions would cause fires that could, between them, release 16 million to 35 million tons of soot into the atmosphere. This soot would absorb solar radiation and heat the air, which would then cause the smoke to rise further, blocking our sun’s light so that 20 to 35 percent less would fall on the Earth. This would trigger a period of global cooling—resulting in a nuclear winter—that would see surface temperatures drop 3.6 F to 9 F to levels not seen on Earth since the last ice age. We could also see global precipitation levels plummet 15 to 30 percent, affecting some regions more than others, the study’s authors conclude.

As a result, they predict 15 to 30 percent less vegetation growth and a 5 to 15 percent decline in ocean productivity worldwide.

“Such a war would threaten not only the locations where bombs might be targeted but the entire world,” said Robock.

Security personnel question motorists on a street in Jammu on August 5, 2019. Jammu and Kashmir have been on lockdown since August 5, 2019—since being introduced, there have been various reports of torture and human rights abuses. Rakesh BAKSHI / AFP/Getty

“I think we have been lucky in the 74 years since that last nuclear war that we have not had another due to mistakes, panic, misunderstanding, technical failures or hacking,” Robock told Newsweek.

“If the weapons exist, they can be used. And the ongoing conflict in Kashmir has the potential to escalate.”

Neither party is likely to initiate a nuclear conflict without major provocation, the study’s authors wrote. However, they did warn of a new Cold War.

“India and Pakistan may be repeating the unfortunate example set by the United States and Russia during the ‘Cold War’ era: that is, building destructive nuclear forces far out of proportion to their role in deterrence,” they write.

While India and Pakistan do not have anything like the nuke-power of the US or Russia—nations that, combined, possess 93 percent of the world’s estimated 13,900 nuclear weapons—both are continuing to grow, rather than stabilize, their arsenal. India, for example, is thought to have a stockpile of 130 to 140 nuclear warheads. By 2025, they could have 200.

“The only way to prevent [nuclear conflict] is to eliminate them,” said Robock.

Political Unrest Before the Antichrist Takes Control

Protesters shun politicians they blame for Iraq woes

October 3, 2019, 2:47 AM MDT

Baghdad (AFP) – The mainly young protesters who have flooded Iraqi streets this week say their movement is spontaneous with no space for the clerics and politicians they accuse of hijacking previous protests for jobs and better services.

“This movement doesn’t look like any of the previous ones — it’s a popular, apolitical movement that isn’t linked to a party or a tribe,” said Majid Saher, 34, while protesting in Baghdad.

In Iraq’s politicised society, large-scale protests are usually called by politicians or religious figures, chief among them Shiite spiritual leader Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani and firebrand cleric Moqtada al-Sadr.

This time, protesters claimed, is different.

“There is no leader. Look how many we are here. We’re all young and unemployed,” said Hussein Mohammad at a demonstration in the capital.

Thousands have packed the squares and thoroughfares of Baghdad and cities across the south since Tuesday, burning tyres and waving the national flag.

Many make do with swimming goggles or sunglasses to protect them from the volleys of tear gas fired by police.

Chief among their many grievances is high youth unemployment, with many posters and chants referring to a “right” to work.

The state remains Iraq’s biggest employer and has typically provided jobs for most university graduates, but recruitment appears to have slowed this year.

Youth unemployment now stands at 25 percent, twice the overall rate, according to the World Bank.

– ‘Parties robbed us’ –

Other grievances include Iraq’s chronic power cuts and water shortages, and state corruption.

Iraqi is listed as the world’s 12th most corrupt country by Transparency International.

“Our number one problem is corruption. It has killed us,” said Walid Ahmad, a former soldier protesting in Baghdad.

He barely got out his words between coughing fits as those around him lit tyres at a road junction in the city centre.

“Today, we just want our people and country. We don’t want political parties, dignitaries or religious chiefs. We don’t want them to join our movement,” Ahmad said.

Nesrine Mohammed, one of the few women among the protesters, said she wanted to dispense with the whole of Iraq’s political class.

“We haven’t heard anything but lies and unfulfilled promises from the government and politicians,” she said.

“The parties have robbed us of all our dreams. There’s no place for the poor in this country,” the 46-year-old added.

For Fanar Haddad, an Iraq expert at the National University of Singapore, the most significant absentee from this week’s protests is Sadr.

Supporters of the former militia leader turned nationalist politician have been at the forefront of most of the larger protests in recent years, including in 2016 when he urged them to storm Baghdad’s then-still-sealed Green Zone administrative and diplomatic compound.

“This is the first time that there are mass, significant and violent protests without Sadrist involvement,” he said.

– ‘Double-edged sword’ –

“One of the myths being burst is that only Sadrists can bring people out to the streets — it seems people can bring themselves out to the streets,” said Haddad.

But this apparent independence “is a double-edged sword for both the government and protesters themselves,” he warned.

On the one hand, the broad-based nature of the protests will make it difficult for a political party to hijack them or for the central government to appease them.

“But it’s also a weakness for protesters -– where can this go? I can’t see it going anywhere definitive,” Haddad said.

Some demonstrators in recent days chanted for “the downfall of the regime,” a refrain popularised during the Arab Spring uprisings that targeted dictatorships across the Arab world in 2011.

But while the protests may bring down Prime Minister Adel Abdel Mahdi just short of a year in office, few had expected his government to last this long anyway.

And Iraq has such a diffuse power structure, there are no other obvious targets for the protesters’ anger.

“There’s no king to take to the guillotine,” Haddad said.