Brace Yourselves for the Sixth Seal (Revelation 6)


Brace Yourselves, New Yorkers, You’re Due for a Major Quake

A couple of hundred thousand years ago, an M 7.2 earthquake shook what is now New Hampshire. Just a few thousand years ago, an M 7.5 quake ruptured just off the coast of Massachusetts. And then there’s New York.

Since the first western settlers arrived there, the state has witnessed 200 quakes of magnitude 2.0 or greater, making it the third most seismically active state east of the Mississippi (Tennessee and South Carolina are ranked numbers one and two, respectively). About once a century, New York has also experienced an M 5.0 quake capable of doing real damage.

The most recent one near New York City occurred in August of 1884. Centered off Long Island’s Rockaway Beach, it was felt over 70,000 square miles. It also opened enormous crevices near the Brooklyn reservoir and knocked down chimneys and cracked walls in Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Police on the Brooklyn Bridge said it swayed “as if struck by a hurricane” and worried the bridge’s towers would collapse. Meanwhile, residents throughout New York and New Jersey reported sounds that varied from explosions to loud rumblings, sometimes to comic effect. At the funeral of Lewis Ingler, a small group of mourners were watching as the priest began to pray. The quake cracked an enormous mirror behind the casket and knocked off a display of flowers that had been resting on top of it. When it began to shake the casket’s silver handles, the mourners decided the unholy return of Lewis Ingler was more than they could take and began flinging themselves out windows and doors.

Not all stories were so light. Two people died during the quake, both allegedly of fright. Out at sea, the captain of the brig Alice felt a heavy lurch that threw him and his crew, followed by a shaking that lasted nearly a minute. He was certain he had hit a wreck and was taking on water.

A day after the quake, the editors of The New York Times sought to allay readers’ fear. The quake, they said, was an unexpected fluke never to be repeated and not worth anyone’s attention: “History and the researches of scientific men indicate that great seismic disturbances occur only within geographical limits that are now well defined,” they wrote in an editorial. “The northeastern portion of the United States . . . is not within those limits.” The editors then went on to scoff at the histrionics displayed by New York residents when confronted by the quake: “They do not stop to reason or to recall the fact that earthquakes here are harmless phenomena. They only know that the solid earth, to whose immovability they have always turned with confidence when everything else seemed transitory, uncertain, and deceptive, is trembling and in motion, and the tremor ceases long before their disturbed minds become tranquil.”
That’s the kind of thing that drives Columbia’s Heather Savage nuts.

New York, she says, is positively vivisected by faults. Most of them fall into two groups—those running northeast and those running northwest. Combined they create a brittle grid underlying much of Manhattan.

Across town, Charles Merguerian has been studying these faults the old‐fashioned way: by getting down and dirty underground. He’s spent the past forty years sloshing through some of the city’s muckiest places: basements and foundations, sewers and tunnels, sometimes as deep as 750 feet belowground. His tools down there consist primarily of a pair of muck boots, a bright blue hard hat, and a pickax. In public presentations, he claims he is also ably abetted by an assistant hamster named Hammie, who maintains his own website, which includes, among other things, photos of the rodent taking down Godzilla.

That’s just one example why, if you were going to cast a sitcom starring two geophysicists, you’d want Savage and Merguerian to play the leading roles. Merguerian is as eccentric and flamboyant as Savage is earnest and understated. In his press materials, the former promises to arrive at lectures “fully clothed.” Photos of his “lab” depict a dingy porta‐john in an abandoned subway tunnel. He actively maintains an archive of vintage Chinese fireworks labels at least as extensive as his list of publications, and his professional website includes a discography of blues tunes particularly suitable for earthquakes. He calls female science writers “sweetheart” and somehow manages to do so in a way that kind of makes them like it (although they remain nevertheless somewhat embarrassed to admit it).

It’s Merguerian’s boots‐on‐the‐ground approach that has provided much of the information we need to understand just what’s going on underneath Gotham. By his count, Merguerian has walked the entire island of Manhattan: every street, every alley. He’s been in most of the tunnels there, too. His favorite one by far is the newest water tunnel in western Queens. Over the course of 150 days, Merguerian mapped all five miles of it. And that mapping has done much to inform what we know about seismicity in New York.

Most importantly, he says, it provided the first definitive proof of just how many faults really lie below the surface there. And as the city continues to excavate its subterranean limits, Merguerian is committed to following closely behind. It’s a messy business.

Down below the city, Merguerian encounters muck of every flavor and variety. He power‐washes what he can and relies upon a diver’s halogen flashlight and a digital camera with a very, very good flash to make up the difference. And through this process, Merguerian has found thousands of faults, some of which were big enough to alter the course of the Bronx River after the last ice age.
His is a tricky kind of detective work. The center of a fault is primarily pulverized rock. For these New York faults, that gouge was the very first thing to be swept away by passing glaciers. To do his work, then, he’s primarily looking for what geologists call “offsets”—places where the types of rock don’t line up with one another. That kind of irregularity shows signs of movement over time—clear evidence of a fault.

Merguerian has found a lot of them underneath New York City.

These faults, he says, do a lot to explain the geological history of Manhattan and the surrounding area. They were created millions of years ago, when what is now the East Coast was the site of a violent subduction zone not unlike those present now in the Pacific’s Ring of Fire.

Each time that occurred, the land currently known as the Mid‐Atlantic underwent an accordion effect as it was violently folded into itself again and again. The process created immense mountains that have eroded over time and been further scoured by glaciers. What remains is a hodgepodge of geological conditions ranging from solid bedrock to glacial till to brittle rock still bearing the cracks of the collision. And, says Merguerian, any one of them could cause an earthquake.

You don’t have to follow him belowground to find these fractures. Even with all the development in our most built‐up metropolis, evidence of these faults can be found everywhere—from 42nd Street to Greenwich Village. But if you want the starkest example of all, hop the 1 train at Times Square and head uptown to Harlem. Not far from where the Columbia University bus collects people for the trip to the Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory, the subway tracks seem to pop out of the ground onto a trestle bridge before dropping back down to earth. That, however, is just an illusion. What actually happens there is that the ground drops out below the train at the site of one of New York’s largest faults. It’s known by geologists in the region as the Manhattanville or 125th Street Fault, and it runs all the way across the top of Central Park and, eventually, underneath Long Island City. Geologists have known about the fault since 1939, when the city undertook a massive subway mapping project, but it wasn’t until recently that they confirmed its potential for a significant quake.

In our lifetimes, a series of small earthquakes have been recorded on the Manhattanville Fault including, most recently, one on October 27, 2001. Its epicenter was located around 55th and 8th—directly beneath the original Original Soupman restaurant, owned by restaurateur Ali Yeganeh, the inspiration for Seinfeld’s Soup Nazi. That fact delighted sitcom fans across the country, though few Manhattanites were in any mood to appreciate it.

The October 2001 quake itself was small—about M 2.6—but the effect on residents there was significant. Just six weeks prior, the city had been rocked by the 9/11 terrorist attacks that brought down the World Trade Center towers. The team at Lamont‐Doherty has maintained a seismic network in the region since the ’70s. They registered the collapse of the first tower at M 2.1. Half an hour later, the second tower crumbled with even more force and registered M 2.3. In a city still shocked by that catastrophe, the early‐morning October quake—several times greater than the collapse of either tower—jolted millions of residents awake with both reminders of the tragedy and fear of yet another attack. 9‐1‐1 calls overwhelmed dispatchers and first responders with reports of shaking buildings and questions about safety in the city. For seismologists, though, that little quake was less about foreign threats to our soil and more about the possibility of larger tremors to come.

Remember: The Big Apple has experienced an M 5.0 quake about every hundred years. The last one was that 1884 event. And that, says Merguerian, means the city is overdue. Just how overdue?

“Gee whiz!” He laughs when I pose this question. “That’s the holy grail of seismicity, isn’t it?”

He says all we can do to answer that question is “take the pulse of what’s gone on in recorded history.” To really have an answer, we’d need to have about ten times as much data as we do today. But from what he’s seen, the faults below New York are very much alive.

“These guys are loaded,” he tells me.

He says he is also concerned about new studies of a previously unknown fault zone known as the Ramapo that runs not far from the city. Savage shares his concerns. They both think it’s capable of an M 6.0 quake or even higher—maybe even a 7.0. If and when, though, is really anybody’s guess.

“We literally have no idea what’s happening in our backyard,” says Savage.

What we do know is that these quakes have the potential to do more damage than similar ones out West, mostly because they are occurring on far harder rock capable of propagating waves much farther. And because these quakes occur in places with higher population densities, these eastern events can affect a lot more people. Take the 2011 Virginia quake: Although it was only a moderate one, more Americans felt it than any other one in our nation’s history.

That’s the thing about the East Coast: Its earthquake hazard may be lower than that of the West Coast, but the total effect of any given quake is much higher. Disaster specialists talk about this in terms of risk, and they make sense of it with an equation that multiplies the potential hazard of an event by the cost of damage and the number of people harmed. When you take all of those factors into account, the earthquake risk in New York is much greater than, say, that in Alaska or Hawaii or even a lot of the area around the San Andreas Fault.

Merguerian has been sounding the alarm about earthquake risk in the city since the ’90s. He admits he hasn’t gotten much of a response. He says that when he first proposed the idea of seismic risk in New York City, his fellow scientists “booed and threw vegetables” at him. He volunteered his services to the city’s Office of Emergency Management but says his original offer also fell on deaf ears.

“So I backed away gently and went back to academia.”

Today, he says, the city isn’t much more responsive, but he’s getting a much better response from his peers.

He’s glad for that, he says, but it’s not enough. If anything, the events of 9/11, along with the devastation caused in 2012 by Superstorm Sandy, should tell us just how bad it could be there.

He and Savage agree that what makes the risk most troubling is just how little we know about it. When it comes right down to it, intraplate faults are the least understood. Some scientists think they might be caused by mantle flow deep below the earth’s crust. Others think they might be related to gravitational energy. Still others think quakes occurring there might be caused by the force of the Atlantic ridge as it pushes outward. Then again, it could be because the land is springing back after being compressed thousands of years ago by glaciers (a phenomenon geologists refer to as seismic rebound).

“We just have no consciousness towards earthquakes in the eastern United States,” says Merguerian. “And that’s a big mistake.”

Adapted from Quakeland: On the Road to America’s Next Devastating Earthquake by Kathryn Miles, published by Dutton, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House, LLC. Copyright © 2017 by Kathryn Miles.

A Closer Look At The Sixth Seal (Revelation 6:12)

A Look at the Tri-State’s Active Fault Line

Monday, March 14, 2011


Bob Hennelly

The Ramapo Fault is the longest fault in the Northeast that occasionally makes local headlines when minor tremors cause rock the Tri-State region.

It begins in Pennsylvania, crosses the Delaware River and continues through Hunterdon, Somerset, Morris, Passaic and Bergen counties before crossing the Hudson River near Indian Point nuclear facility.

In the past, it has generated occasional activity that generated a 2.6 magnitude quake in New Jersey’s Peakpack/Gladstone area and 3.0 magnitude quake in Mendham.

But the New Jersey-New York region is relatively seismically stable according to Dr. Dave Robinson, Professor of Geography at Rutgers. Although it does have activity.

“There is occasional seismic activity in New Jersey,” said Robinson. “There have been a few quakes locally that have been felt and done a little bit of damage over the time since colonial settlement — some chimneys knocked down in Manhattan with a quake back in the 18th century, but nothing of a significant magnitude.”

Robinson said the Ramapo has on occasion registered a measurable quake but has not caused damage: “The Ramapo fault is associated with geological activities back 200 million years ago, but it’s still a little creaky now and again,” he said.

“More recently, in the 1970s and early 1980s, earthquake risk along the Ramapo Fault received attention because of its proximity to Indian Point,” according to the New Jersey Geological Survey website.

Historically, critics of the Indian Point Nuclear facility in Westchester County, New York, did cite its proximity to the Ramapo fault line as a significant risk.

In 1884, according to the New Jersey Geological Survey website, the  Rampao Fault was blamed for a 5.5 quake that toppled chimneys in New York City and New Jersey that was felt from Maine to Virginia.

“Subsequent investigations have shown the 1884 Earthquake epicenter was actually located in Brooklyn, New York, at least 25 miles from the Ramapo Fault,” according to the New Jersey Geological Survey website.

Russian horn ‘could destroy all major cities’ with ease

Putin news:

Putin’s nuclear arsenal re-assessed as Russia ‘could destroy all major cities’ with ease

VLADIMIR PUTIN’s nuclear weapons arsenal “could destroy all major cities”, an expert has warned.


11:19, Tue, Aug 16, 2022 | UPDATED: 11:19, Tue, Aug 16, 2022

Putin says Russia ‘ready to offer’ allies ‘modern types of weapons’

The invasion of Ukraine by Russia earlier this year has severely heightened tensions between Moscow and the West. So much so that leaders in the US, UK and other countries have openly discussed the need to help Ukraine while preventing direct conflict between nuclear powers. While nuclear war is now believed to be far from an imminent danger, some in the West fear that the conflict could provoke Putin to use such weapons, especially if his military is humiliated in the war. Putin put his nuclear forces on high alert in February, and Russian state TV has regularly hosted figures boasting about Moscow’s military and nuclear capabilities.

Hans Møller Kristensen, the director of the Nuclear Information Project at the Federation of American Scientists, recently discussed Russia’s nuclear weapons, noting the extent to which they would affect much of the world.

Speaking to the Wall Street Journal in March, he said: “If that was released (the nuclear weapons) it could destroy all major cities.”

He added, however, that Russia using its nuclear weapons is not an immediate threat: “It’s one thing to rattle the sword and warn your adversaries that you have this capability by doing exercises or increasing alert.

“It’s another step to actually use nuclear weapons because, once you do, all bets are off in terms of how destructive this new phase is going to be.”Z

Data from the Federation of American Scientists shows that Russia narrowly has the biggest nuclear weapons arsenal with 5,977 warheads.

Putin news:

Putin news: Putin has over 5000 warheads (Image: getty)

The US is closely behind on 5,428, and China is a distant third with 350.

The director of national intelligence in the US, Avril Haines, warned in May that Putin would use nuclear weapons if pushed into a desperate position.

She told the Senate: “We do think that [Putin’s perception of an existential threat] could be the case in the event that he perceives that he is losing the war in Ukraine, and that NATO in effect is either intervening or about to intervene in that context, which would obviously contribute to a perception that he is about to lose the war in Ukraine.

“There are a lot of things that he would do in the context of escalation before he would get to nuclear weapons, and also that he would be likely to engage in some signalling beyond what he’s done thus far before doing so.”

Last month, Putin appeared to try to pacify tensions between Russia and the West after months of veiled threats.

Putin news: Russia flaunting its weapons in a Moscow parade (Image: getty)

In a statement, the Russian President warned against nuclear war, saying there would be “no winners”.

He added: “We proceed from the fact that there can be no winners in a nuclear war and it should never be unleashed, and we stand for equal and indivisible security for all members of the world community.”

This did not stop him from threatening countries trying to thwart his progress in Ukraine, however, after he added: “Whoever tries to hinder us should know that Russia’s response will be immediate.

“And it will lead you to such consequences that you have never encountered in your history.”

Putin news:

Putin news: Putin put his nuclear forces on high alert (Image: getty)

Putin news:

Putin news: Russia is still attacking Ukraine (Image: getty)

He added: “From a military point of view, there is no need to use nuclear weapons in Ukraine to achieve the set goals.

“The main purpose of Russian nuclear weapons is to deter a nuclear attack.

Iran Exercises Right to Nukes: Daniel 8

AEOI chief Eslami
Mohammad Eslami, Head of Iran’s nuclear agency (AEOI) talks at the International Atomic Energy’s (IAEA) General Conference in Vienna, Austria (Sept, 2021).

 3 days ago  August 16, 2022

Head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) Mohammad Eslami stressed that the Islamic Republic safeguards its right to enjoy nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.

In comments on Monday, Eslami said that acquiring nuclear technology is a legitimate source of power for any country.

He argued that all countries, including Iran, are entitled to use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and that Iran intends to use that right, Tasnm news agency reported.

However, certain powers have abused their veto right at the UN Security Council to prevent Iran from developing its peaceful nuclear program, he noted.

According to Eslami, numerous allegations have been leveled against the Islamic Republic over the years and its nuclear dossier has been sent to the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the UN Security Council.

Resolutions and sanctions have been slapped against Iran as a result, he added, as quoted by Press TV.

The Iranian nuclear chief also noted that Leader of the Islamic Revolution Imam Sayyed Ali Khamenei has in the past 25 years stressed the importance of developing nuclear technology.

He added that the AEOI has adopted a comprehensive strategic document and taken major steps to develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.

Eslami’s remarks came a few hours before Iran provided the European Union with its final conclusion on high-profile negotiations in Vienna aimed at reviving the 2015 nuclear agreement, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).

One third could die in an India-Pakistan nuclear war: Zechariah 13

Aug 16, 2022, 08:07 pm IST

2 billion people could die in an India-Pakistan nuclear war; Report

According to a new international study led by scientists at Rutgers University, a nuclear war involving less than 3% of global stockpiles could kill one-third of the world’s population in two years. A larger nuclear battle between Russia and the United States, according to the Rutgers University study, could kill three-fourths of the world’s population in the same time frame. In the event of a full-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia, more than 5 billion people would starve.

According to this significant global research, even a minor conflict between two nations involving nuclear weapons would result in widespread starvation. Even small-scale trade between countries such as India and Pakistan could have disastrous consequences for global food supplies and result in mass mortality around the world.

Researchers estimated the amount of ash produced by nuclear wars of different sizes as well as the effect on food production when major cities in India, Pakistan, the US, or Russia will be destroyed by fire. Furthermore, three to four years after the nuclear exchange, global food, animal, and fishery yields would have plummeted by 90 percent, causing widespread starvation, disruption, and collapse, as well as triggering additional feedback loops.

Academic scientists investigated six different nuclear war scenarios. In the worst-case scenario, a full-scale conflict between the United States and Russia would wipe out more than half of humanity, according to a study published in the journal Nature Food. The findings come at a time when, 30 years after the end of the Cold War, the threat of nuclear war may be greater than ever.

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has also warned that ‘the prospect of nuclear conflict, once unthinkable, has now returned to the realm of possibility’. The researchers hypothesised that even a small proportion of the world’s nuclear weapons would cause large firestorms that would quickly inject sun-blocking soot into the sky, causing a sudden cooling of the climate.

Researchers used climate models to predict how much smoke would reach the stratosphere in the absence of precipitation, and how this would affect temperature, precipitation, and sunshine. They then calculated how these changes would affect agricultural productivity and how fish would react to ocean changes. As a result, they predicted that tens of millions of deaths in battle would be followed by hundreds of millions of deaths from starvation throughout the world.

Antichrist postpones ‘million-man’ protests indefinitely

Sadr postpones ‘million-man’ protests indefinitely


Chenar Chalak@Chenar_Qader

Influential Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr calling for snap elections after the dissolution for the current parliament on August 3, 2022. Photo: Sadr’s office

ERBIL, Kurdistan Region – Influential Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr on Tuesday announced the indefinite postponement of the “million-man” demonstration by his supporters set to take place in Baghdad, in a move against the counter-protests called for by his political rivals.

Sadrist supporters were set to hold “million-man” protests on Saturday afternoon from Tahrir Square to the Grand Festivities Square in Baghdad, to express their support for Sadr’s calls for the dissolution of the parliament and the organization of snap parliamentary elections

Sadrist rivals, pro-Iran Shiite parliamentary faction Coordination Framework, on Monday evening asked their supporters to prepare for mass counter-protests, calling for hastening the government formation process, with the time and place of the demonstrations to be announced at a later time.

“Your policy of imitating our steps is evidence of your failure and your persistence on your corruption,” said Sadr in a tweet on Tuesday, saying he is postponing Saturday’s demonstrations until further notice “out of love for Iraq and infatuation for its people and sanctities.”

Sadr added that the demonstrations will continue until the demands of the people are met, calling on his supporters to keep the “peacefulness of the protests,” clarifying that the decision to postpone the “million-man” demonstrations is to foil the “malicious” plans of his political rivals.

The leader of the Sadrist Movement in recent weeks has continuously called for the dissolution of the parliament, in light of the legislature’s failure to form a new government 10 months after its election on October 2021.

Sadr emerged from the October elections with the most seats in the parliament, 73, but resigned from the legislature due to the continued obstruction of his attempts to form a national majority government by the Coordination Framework, who called for the formation of a government based on political consensus.

The First Nuclear War Could Result In The Deaths Of 2 Billion People

An Indian-Pakistani Nuclear Conflict Could Result In The Deaths Of 2 Billion People
 Image Credit : WION

An Indian-Pakistani Nuclear Conflict Could Result In The Deaths Of 2 Billion People

A recent multinational study led by researchers at Rutgers University found that a nuclear conflict involving less than 3% of the world’s stocks could kill one-third of humanity within two years. According to the Rutgers University study, a greater nuclear conflict between the United States and Russia might kill three-fourths of the world’s population in the same amount of time. More than 5 billion people would starve in the case of a full-scale nuclear conflict between the United States and Russia.

According to this important global study, even a modest nuclear-armed battle between two countries would cause widespread hunger. Even small-scale trading between nations like India and Pakistan might have catastrophic effects on the world’s food supply and cause a massive death toll.

Researchers calculated the quantity of ash produced by nuclear conflicts of various sizes, as well as the impact on food supply when major cities in Russia, India, Pakistan, the US, or other countries are completely destroyed by fire. In addition, 90 percent of the world’s food, animal, and fishery yields would have been lost three to four years after the nuclear exchange, leading to widespread starvation, disruption, and collapse as well as starting further feedback loops.

Researchers at academic institutions looked at six potential nuclear war scenarios. According to a study that was published in the journal Nature Food, the worst-case scenario for a full-scale confrontation between the United States and Russia would be the eradication of more than half of humanity. The discoveries are made at a time when the potential of nuclear war may be higher than ever, 30 years after the end of the Cold War.

Judicial Authority is a red line, says Antichrist’s Minister

Judicial Authority is a red line, says Sayyed Al-Sadr’s Minister to protesters


The Minister of the Sadrist movement leader Muqtada al-Sadr, Salih Muhammad al-Iraqi, confirmed on Monday, that the judicial authority and its headquarters form a red line.

Al-Iraqi tweeted on his official Twitter account, followed up by the Iraqi News Agency – INA, seven instructions are as follows:

1- His Eminence says: It is forbidden to mention my name within a chant, speech, photos, banner or anything else.
2- “Peaceful” to the end, in all details.
3- Your demands are to reform the regime in all its details: judicial, legislative and executive, as to hold the corrupt accountable and it is strictly forbidden to demand the return of the Sadrist bloc to Parliament.
4- The security forces and the Popular Mobilization are not only your brothers, but they are from you, among you, and to you, as transgression against them is a transgression against His Eminence.
5- The protest march will be from Tahrir Square towards the Celebrations Square.
6- The judicial authority and its headquarters are a red line, even if we demand its reform.
7- Due to the expected large attendance, please do not disturb the people.
Other instructions are to be informed later.

USGS Evidence Shows Power of the Sixth Seal (Revelation 6:12)

New Evidence Shows Power of East Coast Earthquakes
Virginia Earthquake Triggered Landslides at Great Distances

11/6/2012 8:30:00 AM USGS.gov

Earthquake shaking in the eastern United States can travel much farther and cause damage over larger areas than previously thought.

U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that last year’s magnitude 5.8 earthquake in Virginia triggered landslides at distances four times farther—and over an area 20 times larger—than previous research has shown.

“We used landslides as an example and direct physical evidence to see how far-reaching shaking from east coast earthquakes could be,”

said Randall Jibson, USGS scientist and lead author of this study. “Not every earthquake will trigger landslides, but we can use landslide distributions to estimate characteristics of earthquake energy and how far regional ground shaking could occur.”

“Scientists are confirming with empirical data what more than 50 million people in the eastern U.S. experienced firsthand: this was one powerful earthquake,” said USGS Director Marcia McNutt. “Calibrating the distance over which landslides occur may also help us reach back into the geologic record to look for evidence of past history of major earthquakes from the Virginia seismic zone.”

This study will help inform earthquake hazard and risk assessments as well as emergency preparedness, whether for landslides or other earthquake effects.

This study also supports existing research showing that although earthquakes  are less frequent in the East, their damaging effects can extend over a much larger area as compared to the western United States.

The research is being presented today at the Geological Society of America conference, and will be published in the December 2012 issue of the

Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.

The USGS found that the farthest landslide from the 2011 Virginia earthquake was 245 km (150 miles) from the epicenter. This is by far the greatest landslide distance recorded from any other earthquake of similar magnitude. Previous studies of worldwide earthquakes indicated that landslides occurred no farther than 60 km (36 miles) from the epicenter of a magnitude 5.8 earthquake.

“What makes this new study so unique is that it provides direct observational evidence from the largest earthquake to occur in more than 100 years in the eastern U.S,” said Jibson. “Now that we know more about the power of East Coast earthquakes, equations that predict ground shaking might need to be revised.”

It is estimated that approximately one-third of the U.S. population could have felt last year’s earthquake in Virginia, more than any earthquake in U.S. history.

About 148,000 people reported their ground-shaking experiences caused by the earthquake on the USGS “Did You Feel It?” website. Shaking reports came from southeastern Canada to Florida and as far west as Texas.

In addition to the great landslide distances recorded, the landslides from the 2011 Virginia earthquake occurred in an area 20 times larger than expected from studies of worldwide earthquakes. Scientists plotted the landslide locations that were farthest out and then calculated the area enclosed by those landslides. The observed landslides from last year’s Virginia earthquake enclose an area of about 33,400 km2

, while previous studies indicated an expected area of about 1,500 km2

from an earthquake of similar magnitude.

“The landslide distances from last year’s Virginia earthquake are remarkable compared to historical landslides across the world and represent the largest distance limit ever recorded,” said Edwin Harp, USGS scientist and co-author of this study. “There are limitations to our research, but the bottom line is that we now have a better understanding of the power of East Coast earthquakes and potential damage scenarios.”

The difference between seismic shaking in the East versus the West is due in part to the geologic structure and rock properties that allow seismic waves to travel farther without weakening.

Learn more

about the 2011 central Virginia earthquake.

Earthquake reported before the Sixth Seal: Revelation 6

Earthquake reported in Genesee County

by: Evan Anstey 

Posted: Aug 16, 2022 / 07:17 AM EDT 

Updated: Aug 16, 2022 / 07:17 AM EDT


Posted: Aug 16, 2022 / 07:17 AM EDT

Updated: Aug 16, 2022 / 07:17 AM EDT

STAFFORD, N.Y. (WIVB) — According to a preliminary report from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), an earthquake occurred Monday in Genesee County.

It happened early in the morning. Looking at a map provided by USGS, the quake’s epicenter was located east of Batavia, north of the Stafford County Club, between Prentice Road and Randall Road.

Overall, it wasn’t a powerful earthquake, only registering a magnitude of 1.2 on the Richter scale. USGS says it was five kilometers deep.

Nuclear war would cause a global famine and kill billions, study finds: Revelation 8

Flames from nuclear explosion

Nuclear war would cause a global famine and kill billions, study finds

This article was adapted from a version published by Rutgers University. Read the original story.

More than 5 billion people would die of hunger following a full-scale nuclear war between the U.S. and Russia, according to a global study that estimates post-conflict crop production led by Rutgers University and CU Boulder climate scientists.

“The data tell us one thing: We must prevent a nuclear war from ever happening,” said Alan Robock of Rutgers, a co-author of the study.

The explosion from a 1953 nuclear test in Nevada. (Credit: Public domain image via Wikimedia Commons)

Map of the globe showing how many people would potentially starve in the event of a relatively small-scale nuclear war. Northern latitude countries, including Canada and much of Europe, would experience the highest rates of starvation, while nations like Argentina and Australia would experience the least.
Map of the globe showing how many people would potentially starve in the event of a largel-scale nuclear war. Northern latitude countries, including Canada and much of Europe, would experience the highest rates of starvation, while nations like Argentina and Australia would experience the least.

Click to enlarge
Maps showing how many people in various nations would die from starvation after a relatively small-scale, top, and large-scale, bottom, nuclear war. (Credits: Taylor Jones)

Lili Xia at Rutgers is lead author of the research, which appeared today in the journal Nature Food. Co-authors include Charles Bardeen at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Brian Toon, professor at CU Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences.

Building on past research, the team calculated how much sun-blocking soot would enter the atmosphere from firestorms that would be ignited by the detonation of nuclear weapons. Researchers calculated soot dispersal from six war scenarios—five smaller India-Pakistan wars and a large U.S.-NATO-Russia war—based on the size of each country’s nuclear arsenal.  

“It is astonishing how much smoke can be produced even in a war involving only a few hundred weapons, such as between India and Pakistan,” Toon said. 

These data then were entered by Bardeen into the Community Earth System Model, a climate forecasting tool supported by NCAR. The NCAR Community Land Model made it possible for Xia to estimate productivity of major crops (maize, rice, spring wheat and soybean) on a country-by-country basis. The researchers also examined projected changes to livestock pasture and in global marine fisheries.

Under even the smallest nuclear scenario, a localized war between India and Pakistan, global average caloric production decreased 7% within five years of the conflict. In the largest war scenario tested—a full-scale U.S.-Russia nuclear conflict—global average caloric production decreased by about 90% three to four years after the fighting.

Crop declines would be the most severe in the mid-high latitude nations, including major exporting countries such as Russia and the U.S., which could trigger export restrictions and cause severe disruptions in import-dependent countries in Africa and the Middle East. 

These changes would induce a catastrophic disruption of global food markets, the researchers conclude. Even a 7% global decline in crop yield would exceed the largest anomaly ever recorded since the beginning of Food and Agricultural Organization observational records in 1961. Under the largest war scenario, more than 75% of the planet would be starving within two years.

Preventing a war

Researchers considered whether using crops fed to livestock as human food or reducing food waste could offset caloric losses in a war’s immediate aftermath, but the savings were minimal under the large injection scenarios.

“Future work will bring even more granularity to the crop models,” Xia said. “For instance, the ozone layer would be destroyed by the heating of the stratosphere, producing more ultraviolet radiation at the surface, and we need to understand that impact on food supplies.”

Climate scientists at CU Boulder are also creating detailed soot models for specific cities, such as Washington, D.C., with inventories of every building to get a more accurate picture of how much smoke would be produced. 

Robock said researchers already have more than enough information to know that a nuclear war of any size would obliterate global food systems, killing billions of people in the process. 

“If nuclear weapons exist, they can be used, and the world has come close to nuclear war several times,” Robock said. “Banning nuclear weapons is the only long-term solution. The five-year-old UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons has been ratified by 66 nations, but none of the nine nuclear states. Our work makes clear that it is time for those nine states to listen to science and the rest of the world and sign this treaty.”

Toon added that there’s more that the United States can do to prevent this kind of global catastrophe.

“We need to stop the development of new types of weapons,” Toon said. “We are headed to a situation in which warning times of an attack are becoming so short that artificial intelligence could end up deciding if we go to war. Removing land-based missiles in the U.S. would eliminate a target painted on America, and provide us time to make sure an attack is real before responding, which would lessen the chances of an accidental war.”

Other co-authors of the new study include researchers at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; Louisiana State University; the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research; NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies; Columbia Universiy; and Queensland University of Technology.